An­tibi­otic Re­sis­tance

Sec­ondary Plant Com­pounds as an Al­ter­na­tive?

The Poultry Bulletin - - BROILER PRICE REPORT -

In an­i­mal pro­duc­tion an­tibi­otics are used for ther­a­peu­tic and meta­phy­lac­tic treat­ment of in­di­vid­ual an­i­mals and whole flocks. As a nat­u­ral re­ac­tion of the bac­te­ria to these sub­stances, re­sis­tances against sev­eral an­tibi­otics can oc­cur. The most com­mon re­sis­tant bac­te­ria are MRSA (me­thi­cillin-re­sis­tant Sta­phy­lo­coc­cus au­reus)-strains and ESBL (Ex­tended-spec­trum-β-lac­ta­mase – an en­zyme in­ac­ti­vat­ing an­tibi­otics) pro­duc­ing en­ter­obac­te­ria. Fur­ther­more, as de­scribed in our News­let­ter “An­tibi­otic Re­sis­tance”, bac­te­ria are able to ex­tend their spec­trum of re­sis­tance in dif­fer­ent ways and to cre­ate mul­tire­sis­tances. In the pub­lic there is in­ten­sive dis­cus­sion about dis­tri­bu­tion and trans­mis­sion of re­sis­tant pathogens from live­stock an­i­mals to hu­mans. In­fec­tions due to these an­tibi­otic and mul­tire­sis­tant bac­te­ria and their treat­ment are a global prob­lem. For this pur­pose knowl­edge out of live­stock and pet hus­bandry as well as hu­man sec­tor (hospi­tal, rest homes, pu­rifi­ca­tion plants etc.) should be con­sid­ered. Sec­ondary Plant Com­pounds For a long time sec­ondary plant com­pounds have been well known for their an­timi­cro­bial ac­tiv­ity and there­fore are used in tra­di­tional and al­ter­na­tive hu­man medicine. For some time there has been re­search con­cern­ing the use of these sub­stances in an­i­mal hus­bandry. In vitro and in

vivo tri­als doc­u­mented an­timi­cro­bial ef­fects of nu­mer­ous sec­ondary plant com­pounds. For ex­am­ple cin­na­mon oil or to be more pre­cise, the con­tained cin­na­mon alde­hyde, showed bac­te­rio­static ef­fects against Sal­mo­nella, E. coli,

Pseu­domonas aerug­i­nosa, Kleb­siella pneu­mo­niae, en­teroand Sta­phy­lo­coc­cus. Cin­na­mon alde­hyde be­sides other com­pounds can in­hibit the pro­duc­tion of amino acid de­car­boxy­lases and there­fore de­crease cel­lu­lar growth and re­pro­duc­tion of these pathogens. What about An­tibi­otic Re­sis­tant Pathogens? There is ev­i­dence that sec­ondary plant com­pound also pos­sess an­timi­cro­bial char­ac­ter­is­tics against an­tibi­otic re­sis­tant pathogens. In-vitro tri­als with cin­na­mon oil also showed an­timi­cro­bial ef­fects against me­thi­cillin re­sis­tant Sta­phy­lo­coc­cus au­reus, as well as against mul­tire­sis­tant E.

coli, Kleb­siella pneu­mo­niae and Can­dida al­bi­cans. Fur­ther tri­als with MRSA pathogens re­vealed, that the an­timi­cro­bial ef­fect of cin­na­mon oil is higher in com­bi­na­tion with cit­ric acid. The com­po­nents eugenol and cin­na­mon alde­hyde con­tained in cin­na­mon oil in­crease per­me­abil­ity of the plasma mem­brane and dis­turb in this way es­sen­tial cel­lu­lar func­tions of the pathogen. Un­til now no bac­te­rial re­sis­tances against plant ex­tracts are de­scribed. Lit­er­a­ture: BAIJU, N., MO­DAK, S.M. (2007): Broad-spec­trum dis­in­fec­tant com­po­si­tion con­tain­ing a syn­er­gis­tic com­bi­na­tion of cin­na­mon oil and cit­ric acid. In­ter­na­tional Jour­nal of Es­sen­tial Oil Ther­a­peu­tics (2007) 1, pp. 117-121 KHAN, R., IS­LAM, B., AKRAM, M., SHAKIL, S., AH­MAD, A., MANAZIR ALI, S., SID-DIQUI, M., KHAN, A.U. (2009): An­timi­cro­bial ac­tiv­ity of five herbal ex­tracts against multi drug re­sis­tant (MDR) strains of bac­te­ria and fun­gus of clin­i­cal ori­gin. Molecules (2009) 14, pp. 586-597 www.mdpi. com/jour­nal/molecules YOSSA, N. PA­TEL, J., MACARISIN, D., MILLNER, P., MURPH, C. (2012): An­tibac­te­rial ac­tiv­ity of Cin­namalde­hyde and Spo­ran against Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Sal­mo­nella. Univer­sity of Ne­braska, Pub­li­ca­tions from USDA-ARS/UNL Fac­ulty. Pa­per 1136

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