The Star Early Edition - - NEWS - What are the tips for drink­ing more water ev­ery day? How can I make drink­ing water more in­ter­est­ing? Can you get sick from drink­ing too much water? Is tap water safe to drink? What can one do to make drink­ing water safe? What are sug­ary drinks? What is th

For chil­dren and adults? A com­mon rec­om­men­da­tion is to drink six or eight glasses of water or other fluid ev­ery day, but some adults may need more or less, depend­ing on how healthy they are, how much they ex­er­cise, and how hot and dry the cli­mate is. Water is in­gested as plain drink­ing water and as bev­er­ages and in food, such as ap­ples, or­anges and mel­ons.

There are some fairly easy rules of thumb to fol­low when it comes to hy­dra­tion. One of the im­por­tant ones is to pre-hy­drate. In other words, drink water BE­FORE you start feel­ing thirsty, or BE­FORE you do an ac­tiv­ity. It is also help­ful to mon­i­tor your urine. If you are ad­e­quately hy­drated, you should be uri­nat­ing about once ev­ery two to four hours, and your urine should be colour­less or a very pale yel­low. If it is darker than that, you haven’t had enough fluid. Headaches and dizzi­ness are a late sign of de­hy­dra­tion. If you start ex­pe­ri­enc­ing those, you re­ally need to up the water in­take, and quickly.

Drink a glass of water rather than hav­ing a sug­ary drink. Al­ways carry water with you. Keep a re­us­able water bot­tle with you and make sure to re­fill it reg­u­larly.

Take a bot­tle of clean, safe water to school/work­place.

Try set­ting re­minders on your cell­phone or com­puter ev­ery hour or notes at your desk to drink water reg­u­larly.

Make it a habit to drink water with meals.

In­crease daily water in­take when the weather is hot.

Drink one to two glasses of water 30 min­utes be­fore ex­er­cis­ing and sip ex­tra water for the next few hours af­ter­wards.

Put the num­ber of water bot­tles you would like to drink the next day in the re­frig­er­a­tor.

Drink a glass of water first thing in the morn­ing.

Fresh slices of lemon, cu­cum­ber, mint leaves, lime slices or berries add a dif­fer­ent flavour to your water. Most fresh or frozen fruits and herbs ac­cord­ing to your favourite flavours and what you have on hand in your fridge, can be used to make nat­u­rally flavoured water. You can drink it right away, but the flavour in­ten­si­fies if it’s made an hour or two ahead. Kept re­frig­er­ated, the flavour is even bet­ter the next day. Flavoured

What about com­mer­cially avail­able flavoured water?

Com­mer­cially avail­able flavoured drinks such as sweet­ened flavoured water, co­conut water or vi­ta­min en­riched water con­tain sugar. For ex­am­ple, 500 ml of th­ese drinks con­tain 15g – 31g sugar per 500 ml (two av­er­age-sized cups/ glasses), which is about four to eight tea­spoons of sugar.

There are no health ben­e­fits to drink­ing more water than what is needed; when ex­cess water is con­sumed it will be ex­creted as urine. How­ever, the max­i­mum amount of water that a per­son with a nor­mal kid­ney func­tion can drink is 800-1000 ml/hr to avoid hy­pona­tremia (low sodium lev­els) symp­toms. If you suf­fer from kid­ney fail­ure, you may have water/ fluid re­stric­tions.

South African tap water is gen­er­ally safe to drink and the South African na­tional stan­dard com­pares well with the World Health Or­ga­ni­za­tion’s (WHO) lim­its. Tap water also costs a lot less than bot­tled water and is healthy for the en­vi­ron­ment too. There may be ar­eas around the coun­try where the water may at times not meet the re­quired tech­ni­cal stan­dard; hence the need to en­sure that the water one drinks is clean and safe.

If you are con­cerned about the safety of your water sup­ply, then you should ei­ther boil the water for three min­utes or add one tea­spoon of bleach to 25 litres and leave it to stand for two hours. Some tap and nat­u­ral water may have a slight brown tinge which is harm­less and does not af­fect drink­ing water qual­ity. It is im­por­tant to store cook­ing and drink­ing water in sep­a­rate con­tain­ers. Sug­ary drinks are drinks that are sweet­ened with var­i­ous forms of free sug­ars. Ex­am­ples in­clude fizzy drinks, teas or cof­fees, flavoured wa­ters, drink­ing yo­gurt and sport and en­ergy drinks. Fruit juices have a sim­i­lar kilo­joule and sugar con­tent as drinks that have added sugar and are there­fore re­garded as sug­ary drinks. Sug­ary drinks, there­fore, in­clude sugar sweet­ened bev­er­ages (SSBs) as well as fruit juices, in­clud­ing sweet­ened milk drinks. between free sug­ars and to­tal sugar?

Ac­cord­ing to the World Health Or­ga­ni­za­tion (WHO), free sug­ars are sug­ars that are added to foods and bev­er­ages by the man­u­fac­turer, cook or con­sumer, and sug­ars nat­u­rally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice con­cen­trates. Free sug­ars do not in­clude in­trin­sic sug­ars, which are sug­ars that ex­ist within the struc­ture of in­tact fresh fruits and veg­eta­bles, and sug­ars nat­u­rally present in milk. To­tal sug­ars are the sum of the sug­ars that are added (free sug­ars) and the sug­ars that are nat­u­rally present in food and drinks.

Is brown sugar or honey not a healthy al­ter­na­tive to white sugar?

Honey and brown sugar fall in the cat­e­gory of sug­ars and do not have any health ben­e­fit over any other type of sugar or syrup and con­tain the same amount of kilo­joules. Although brown sugar and honey may con­tain trace el­e­ments, the quan­ti­ties present are very small.

Why is there a fo­cus on de­creas­ing the drink­ing sug­ary drinks?

Sug­ary drinks are ma­jor con­trib­u­tors to the ris­ing prob­lem of obe­sity rates. The con­sump­tion of sug­ary drinks has in­creased world­wide and South Africa is no ex­cep­tion. A 2014 study showed that the per capita con­sump­tion of soft drinks in the coun­try in­creased by 69 per cent. A re­cent study4 among ado­les­cents in Soweto showed that sug­ary drink con­sump­tion among them was rel­a­tively high. On av­er­age, males con­sumed 44.7 g (11 tea­spoons) and fe­males 28.4 g (seven tea­spoons) of added sugar per day from sug­ary drinks. Their to­tal sugar in­take per day from sug­ary drinks and con­fec­tionary was 80 g (20 tea­spoons) for males and 69.1 g (17 tea­spoons) for fe­males.

Fre­quent con­sump­tion is as­so­ci­ated with weight gain and obe­sity; the de­vel­op­ment of other chronic dis­eases such as Type 2 Di­a­betes and heart dis­ease; frag­ile bones and other bone dis­eases like os­teo­poro­sis as well as tooth de­cay Un­healthy di­ets and phys­i­cal in­ac­tiv­ity are among the lead­ing causes of the ma­jor non­com­mu­ni­ca­ble dis­eases (NCDs), in­clud­ing car­dio­vas­cu­lar dis­ease, type 2 di­a­betes and cer­tain types of cancer.

Th­ese con­trib­ute sub­stan­tially to the global bur­den of dis­ease, death and dis­abil­ity.

Ac­cord­ing to Sta­tis­tics South Africa, di­a­betes was the sec­ond lead­ing un­der­ly­ing cause of death in the coun­try in 2015.

The risk of di­a­betes, coro­nary heart dis­ease and is­chaemic stroke rises with an in­crease in body weight, as well as the risks for can­cers of the breast, colon, prostate and other or­gans. and cav­i­ties.

Weight alone is not the only in­di­ca­tion of your over­all health. There­fore, ev­ery per­son should eat healthy, ir­re­spec­tive of their weight. Sug­ary drinks can lead to in­creased vis­ceral fat, a fat that builds up in and around or­gans in your body. This can lead to di­a­betes, heart dis­ease.

Sug­ary drinks are avail­able ev­ery­where and peo­ple have easy ac­cess to them at home, school, work, and re­tail food out­lets. The prices of sug­ary drinks have also de­creased whilst the por­tion sizes and mar­ket­ing of sug­ary drinks have in­creased.

The WHO rec­om­mends that adults and chil­dren through­out life should re­duce the in­take of free sug­ars to less than 10 per cent of to­tal en­ergy in­take and for more health ben­e­fits, to less than five per cent of to­tal daily en­ergy. This means that the max­i­mum in­take of free sug­ars from food and bev­er­ages per day for adult men and ado­les­cents (14 – 18 years) should not be more than 12 tea­spoons and for adult women and chil­dren five to 13 years, not more than nine tea­spoons. To achieve more health ben­e­fits, the num­ber of tea­spoons of sugar from food and bev­er­ages per day for adult men and ado­les­cents (14 – 18 years) should not be more than six tea­spoons and for adult women and chil­dren five to 13 years, not more than five tea­spoons.

On av­er­age, com­mer­cially pro­duced sug­ary drinks con­tain the fol­low­ing amounts of sugar per 500 ml serv­ing (two av­er­age-sized

It is of con­cern that the mag­ni­tude of the as­so­ci­a­tion between sug­ary drink in­take and body mass in­dex has been found to be stronger in peo­ple ge­net­i­cally pre­dis­posed to obe­sity.

The find­ings sug­gest that the health ben­e­fits as­so­ci­ated with an over­all re­duc­tion in sug­ary drinks.

Con­sump­tion of sug­ary drinks has been found to be sig­nif­i­cantly as­so­ci­ated with an in­creased risk of heart dis­ease32 and drink­ing 7 or more sug­ary drinks per week was as­so­ci­ated with a 29% in­creased heart dis­ease mor­tal­ity risk com­pared with less than 1 serv­ing week33. cups/glasses):

Sweet­ened fizzy drinks: 13 – 17 tea­spoons.

En­ergy drinks: 13½ to 15 tea­spoons.

Fruit juice: 12 – 16 tea­spoons. ●Sweet­ened flavoured milk or yo­ghurt-based drinks: 7 – 13½ tea­spoons. ●Sweet­ened iced tea: 8 – 10½ tea­spoons.

Sports drinks: 4½ - 12 tea­spoons. ●Sweet­ened drinks, such as sweet­ened flavoured water, vi­ta­min en­riched water and co­conut water: 4 – 8 tea­spoons of water.

The food la­bel on foods or drinks con­tain in­for­ma­tion on the in­gre­di­ents that were used to man­u­fac­ture the food or drink as well as a nu­tri­tional in­for­ma­tion ta­ble that gives the nu­tri­tional value of that food or drink. Look at the ta­ble with the nu­tri­tional in­for­ma­tion on the food la­bel. Find the words: ‘To­tal sugar’ and see how much sugar in grams are in­di­cated next to it. The con­tainer has to in­di­cate the nu­tri­tional in­for­ma­tion per 100 ml and it may also in­clude it per serv­ing size. It is im­por­tant to note the amount per serv­ing size is set by the man­u­fac­turer, and may dif­fer from what you typ­i­cally drink. To cal­cu­late the num­ber of tea­spoons of sugar, di­vide the num­ber of grams of to­tal sugar by four. For ex­am­ple: If a 500 ml drink has 60 grams of sugar, di­vide 60 by four. That equals 15 tea­spoons of sugar.

What about 100 per cent fruit juice, even freshly ex­tracted juice? Is that a healthy op­tion?

100 per­cent juice is more nu­tri­tious than sugar-sweet­ened fruit drinks, but it’s high in kilo­joules from nat­u­ral sug­ars found in fruit. For in­stance, it takes about two to four medium or­anges (depend­ing on the size than sug­ary drinks. If some­one is used to reg­u­larly drink­ing sug­ary drinks, then ar­ti­fi­cial sweet­en­ers or ar­ti­fi­cially sweet­ened drinks are a good step to cut­ting down. This does not mean ar­ti­fi­cial sweet­en­ers or ar­ti­fi­cially sweet­ened drinks are healthy, as they still taste very sweet and crav­ings for sweet foods can con­tinue. Ar­ti­fi­cially sweet­ened drinks there­fore should not be part of a long-term healthy eat­ing plan.

Cof­fee and tea, with the ex­cep­tion of Rooi­bos and herbal teas con­tain caf­feine, which is a stim­u­lant. It is also a di­uretic and stim­u­lates uri­na­tion. The in­take of caf­feine should not be more than 400 mg per day. Cof­fee con­tains about 60 – 180 mg of caf­feine and tea about 14 – 70 mg of caf­feine. This trans­lates into two to three cups of cof­fee or five to six cups of tea. Tea also con­tains tan­nins which are not al­ways ben­e­fi­cial and in­ter­fere with the ab­sorp­tion of cer­tain nu­tri­ents such as iron. Fur­ther­more, the ad­di­tion of cof­fee cream­ers or tea whiten­ers, cream and/or any type of sugar can turn tea and cof­fee into less healthy drinks.

What you eat and drink is your choice. We would like to give you the facts on how to make an in­formed de­ci­sion on what is healthy and why other al­ter­na­tives are not so healthy. It is im­por­tant to take note that the heav­ilyad­ver­tised bev­er­ages are the sin­gle largest driver of the obe­sity epi­demic, and that there are tasty, health­ier al­ter­na­tives.

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