32 hostile media laws
Hlatshwayo on the defamation laws and other restrictions on journalists quoted a 2002 audit of restrictive media laws in Swaziland compiled by legal consultant Lindiwe Khumalo-Matse that found that the country has 32 laws restricting the media.
Chief among them are the Proscribed Publications Act of 1968, Official Secrets Act 1968 and Sediction and Subversive Activities Act of 1968.
The first censors the content of media publications; the second prevents disclosure of state information while the third criminalises uttering statements that bring the King and heirs or successors into disrepute.
The consultant further stated that the majority of these are outdated and are so broad in language that they can be used anywhere and in any situation to impose restrictions on the media.
TAKING NOTES: Michael Motsa and Ambrose Zwane during the launch of the study.