Wood remains main energy source for cooking in rural areas
In addition to electrical energy, modern energy resources include hydrocarbon fuels (e. g., LPG, candles and coal).
Despite a national electricity access rate of more than 60 per cent, the use of electricity for cooking in rural areas is not common. Even though fuelwood has remained the major energy resource for cooking over the years, electricity use for cooking is increasing steadily and has remained higher than LPG and paraffin. Use of electricity in cooking is expected to continue to grow in the future.
Fuelwood remains the main energy resource for cooking and space heating, particularly in rural areas. However, according to the 2016 wood efficient cook stoves survey conducted by the Renewable Energy Association of Swaziland on behalf of the energy department, fuelwood is generally used inefficiently in rural areas. Following a pilot project aimed at promoting the efficient use of fuelwood, the Government is planning to extend the use of wood-efficient cook stoves, which can aid in the worldwide fight against deforestation and climate change. To assess the future demand for traditional biomass, assumptions were made regarding the share of households using biomass for cooking, and the efficiency of biomass cook stoves. In line with SE4ALL goals and other policies to promote alternative modern fuels for cooking, it was assumed that by 2030 the share of households using fuelwood would be 20 per cent (the same as in 2014), the share using LPG would be 20 per cent (up from 14 percent in 2014), and the share using electric stoves would be 80 per cent (up from 69 per cent in 2014). The policy also promotes efficient cook stoves, and a 50 percent efficiency improvement in wood cook stoves is assumed to 2034.
Increased penetration of efficient water heating is expected in the residential sector, in line with various policy goals and technology developments on appliance energy efficiency standards. Current shares of water heating devices are estimated at 82 per cent for wood, 9 per cent for geysers, 5 per cent for solar water heaters with back-up, 0 per cent for solar water heaters without back-up and 4 percent for other electric devices. The most inefficient woodbased water heating is replaced by other more efficient options, reducing its share by 13 per cent by 2034. Reflecting its promotion under the SE4ALL initiative, the share of solar water heating is assumed to reach 50 percent of households (25 per cent with back-up and 25 per cent without back-up).
The National Energy Policy of 2003 promotes improving energy efficiency in all sectors. According to the policy, energy efficiency and savings aim to reduce energy consumption at the end-user level as well as in the supply system. Energy efficiency is about reducing losses within a technical energy system by optimising energy use, whereas energy savings covers a broader conservation methodology, including behavioral and operational issues. Energy efficiency initiatives in Eswatini include awareness raising and information dissemination, promotion of energy management in all sectors, building standards, energy efficiency within government institutions, energy appliance labelling and demand-side management.
Ongoing energy efficiency initiatives include:
Installation of solar water heaters in government buildings;
Awareness and information dissemination through live radio programmes, roadshows and outdoor advertising; Implementation of time-of-use tariffs; Energy audits of public institutions as well as corporate customers;
Roll-out of prepaid electricity metering;
Distribution of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and LEDs to the public;
Installation of solar PV and LED lighting demonstration projects; and
Adoption of energy efficiency standards.
The SE4ALL initiative includes some specific efficiency improvement targets, which collectively aim to double the rates of improvements in energy efficiency by 2030. Across all of the scenarios in LEAPSwaziland, the following efficiency improvements are taken into consideration:
• Coal use in the commerce and government services sector
• Wood cook stoves in the residential sector.