Wood re­mains main en­ergy source for cook­ing in ru­ral ar­eas

Observer on Saturday - - News -

In ad­di­tion to elec­tri­cal en­ergy, mod­ern en­ergy re­sources in­clude hy­dro­car­bon fu­els (e. g., LPG, can­dles and coal).

De­spite a na­tional elec­tric­ity ac­cess rate of more than 60 per cent, the use of elec­tric­ity for cook­ing in ru­ral ar­eas is not com­mon. Even though fu­el­wood has re­mained the ma­jor en­ergy re­source for cook­ing over the years, elec­tric­ity use for cook­ing is in­creas­ing steadily and has re­mained higher than LPG and paraf­fin. Use of elec­tric­ity in cook­ing is ex­pected to con­tinue to grow in the fu­ture.

Fu­el­wood re­mains the main en­ergy re­source for cook­ing and space heat­ing, par­tic­u­larly in ru­ral ar­eas. How­ever, ac­cord­ing to the 2016 wood ef­fi­cient cook stoves sur­vey con­ducted by the Re­new­able En­ergy As­so­ci­a­tion of Swazi­land on be­half of the en­ergy depart­ment, fu­el­wood is gen­er­ally used in­ef­fi­ciently in ru­ral ar­eas. Fol­low­ing a pi­lot project aimed at pro­mot­ing the ef­fi­cient use of fu­el­wood, the Gov­ern­ment is plan­ning to ex­tend the use of wood-ef­fi­cient cook stoves, which can aid in the world­wide fight against de­for­esta­tion and cli­mate change. To as­sess the fu­ture de­mand for tra­di­tional biomass, as­sump­tions were made re­gard­ing the share of house­holds us­ing biomass for cook­ing, and the ef­fi­ciency of biomass cook stoves. In line with SE4ALL goals and other poli­cies to pro­mote al­ter­na­tive mod­ern fu­els for cook­ing, it was as­sumed that by 2030 the share of house­holds us­ing fu­el­wood would be 20 per cent (the same as in 2014), the share us­ing LPG would be 20 per cent (up from 14 per­cent in 2014), and the share us­ing elec­tric stoves would be 80 per cent (up from 69 per cent in 2014). The pol­icy also pro­motes ef­fi­cient cook stoves, and a 50 per­cent ef­fi­ciency im­prove­ment in wood cook stoves is as­sumed to 2034.

In­creased pen­e­tra­tion of ef­fi­cient wa­ter heat­ing is ex­pected in the res­i­den­tial sec­tor, in line with var­i­ous pol­icy goals and tech­nol­ogy de­vel­op­ments on appliance en­ergy ef­fi­ciency stan­dards. Cur­rent shares of wa­ter heat­ing de­vices are es­ti­mated at 82 per cent for wood, 9 per cent for gey­sers, 5 per cent for so­lar wa­ter heaters with back-up, 0 per cent for so­lar wa­ter heaters with­out back-up and 4 per­cent for other elec­tric de­vices. The most in­ef­fi­cient wood­based wa­ter heat­ing is re­placed by other more ef­fi­cient op­tions, re­duc­ing its share by 13 per cent by 2034. Re­flect­ing its pro­mo­tion un­der the SE4ALL ini­tia­tive, the share of so­lar wa­ter heat­ing is as­sumed to reach 50 per­cent of house­holds (25 per cent with back-up and 25 per cent with­out back-up).

The Na­tional En­ergy Pol­icy of 2003 pro­motes im­prov­ing en­ergy ef­fi­ciency in all sec­tors. Ac­cord­ing to the pol­icy, en­ergy ef­fi­ciency and sav­ings aim to re­duce en­ergy con­sump­tion at the end-user level as well as in the sup­ply sys­tem. En­ergy ef­fi­ciency is about re­duc­ing losses within a tech­ni­cal en­ergy sys­tem by op­ti­mis­ing en­ergy use, whereas en­ergy sav­ings cov­ers a broader con­ser­va­tion method­ol­ogy, in­clud­ing be­hav­ioral and op­er­a­tional is­sues. En­ergy ef­fi­ciency ini­tia­tives in Eswa­tini in­clude aware­ness raising and in­for­ma­tion dis­sem­i­na­tion, pro­mo­tion of en­ergy man­age­ment in all sec­tors, build­ing stan­dards, en­ergy ef­fi­ciency within gov­ern­ment in­sti­tu­tions, en­ergy appliance la­belling and de­mand-side man­age­ment.

On­go­ing en­ergy ef­fi­ciency ini­tia­tives in­clude:

In­stal­la­tion of so­lar wa­ter heaters in gov­ern­ment build­ings;

Aware­ness and in­for­ma­tion dis­sem­i­na­tion through live ra­dio pro­grammes, road­shows and out­door ad­ver­tis­ing; Im­ple­men­ta­tion of time-of-use tar­iffs; En­ergy au­dits of pub­lic in­sti­tu­tions as well as cor­po­rate cus­tomers;

Roll-out of pre­paid elec­tric­ity me­ter­ing;

Dis­tri­bu­tion of com­pact flu­o­res­cent lamps (CFLs) and LEDs to the pub­lic;

In­stal­la­tion of so­lar PV and LED light­ing demon­stra­tion projects; and

Adop­tion of en­ergy ef­fi­ciency stan­dards.

The SE4ALL ini­tia­tive in­cludes some spe­cific ef­fi­ciency im­prove­ment tar­gets, which col­lec­tively aim to dou­ble the rates of im­prove­ments in en­ergy ef­fi­ciency by 2030. Across all of the sce­nar­ios in LEAPSwazi­land, the fol­low­ing ef­fi­ciency im­prove­ments are taken into con­sid­er­a­tion:

• Coal use in the com­merce and gov­ern­ment ser­vices sec­tor

• Wood cook stoves in the res­i­den­tial sec­tor.

Newspapers in English

Newspapers from Swaziland

© PressReader. All rights reserved.