What is T1DM

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Type 1 di­a­betes is a con­di­tion where the pa­tient’s pan­creas no longer pro­duces the in­sulin re­quired to sur­vive. Once known as ju­ve­nile di­a­betes or in­sulin–de­pen­dent di­a­betes, T1DM in chil­dren can be over­whelm­ing at first. Al­most overnight, the par­ent and the child must learn to give in­jec­tions, count car­bo­hy­drates and mon­i­tor blood–sugar lev­els. Al­though it re­quires con­sis­tent care, ad­vances in blood–sugar mon­i­tor­ing and in­sulin de­liv­ery have im­proved the daily man­age­ment of type 1 di­a­betes in chil­dren. Without in­sulin in the body two things hap­pen. First, the pa­tient has no en­ergy and the body starts burn­ing fat as an al­ter­na­tive fuel – thus caus­ing the pa­tient to lose weight. The se­cond con­se­quence of di­a­betes is that glu­cose con­tin­ues to en­ter the blood­stream but does not get ab­sorbed by the mus­cles, brain cells, or or­gans be­cause the pan­creas is not pro­duc­ing enough in­sulin to help the cells ab­sorb glu­cose. This ex­tremely glu­cose–rich blood be­gins to act as a poi­son in the sys­tem, de­stroy­ing vul­ner­a­ble or­gans through­out the body, es­pe­cially the cells that make up the struc­ture of kid­neys, eyes, ar­ter­ies, nerves and blood ves­sels par­tic­u­larly in the lower limbs.

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