WHAT IT ALL MEANS: AN IN­FER­TIL­ITY GLOSSARY

Friday - - Health -

Poly­cys­tic ovar­ian syn­drome or PCOS Mul­ti­ple small cysts in the ovaries that are mostly be­nign, due to sev­eral rea­sons in­clud­ing ‘seden­tary lifestyle, a diet of ex­ces­sive pro­cessed food, ge­net­ics or en­vi­ron­men­tal causes such as pol­lu­tion,’ says Dr Eset. En­dometrio­sis When the lin­ing of the uterus (the en­dometrium) grows out­side the uterus, it is un­able to exit the body dur­ing the men­strual cy­cle, thus get­ting trapped. This re­sults in ovar­ian cysts called en­dometri­omas or blocked fal­lop­ian tubes, and can lead to fer­til­ity prob­lems. In-vitro fer­til­iza­tion (IVF), in­tra­cy­to­plas­mic sperm in­jec­tion (ICSI) and in­trauter­ine in­sem­i­na­tion (IUI): These are the most pop­u­lar tech­niques in as­sisted con­cep­tion, says Dr Diana. IVF is a process ‘when a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm are fer­til­ized in the em­bry­ol­ogy lab to cre­ate an em­bryo’. It in­volves hor­mon­ally con­trol­ling the ovu­la­tory process, re­mov­ing ova (eggs) from the woman’s ovaries and let­ting a man’s sperm fer­tilise them in a fluid medium. ‘The em­bryo is then grown in the lab for 3 to 5 days be­fore be­ing trans­ferred back into the woman to im­plant and be­come a nor­mal preg­nancy.’ The ICSI pro­ce­dure is al­most iden­ti­cal to IVF, the only dif­fer­ence be­ing ‘the sperm is in­jected into the egg, which in­creases fer­til­iza­tion rates.’ In the case of IUI, the sperm is in­jected into the woman’s uterus.

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