WHAT IT ALL MEANS: AN INFERTILITY GLOSSARY
Polycystic ovarian syndrome or PCOS Multiple small cysts in the ovaries that are mostly benign, due to several reasons including ‘sedentary lifestyle, a diet of excessive processed food, genetics or environmental causes such as pollution,’ says Dr Eset. Endometriosis When the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) grows outside the uterus, it is unable to exit the body during the menstrual cycle, thus getting trapped. This results in ovarian cysts called endometriomas or blocked fallopian tubes, and can lead to fertility problems. In-vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI): These are the most popular techniques in assisted conception, says Dr Diana. IVF is a process ‘when a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm are fertilized in the embryology lab to create an embryo’. It involves hormonally controlling the ovulatory process, removing ova (eggs) from the woman’s ovaries and letting a man’s sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium. ‘The embryo is then grown in the lab for 3 to 5 days before being transferred back into the woman to implant and become a normal pregnancy.’ The ICSI procedure is almost identical to IVF, the only difference being ‘the sperm is injected into the egg, which increases fertilization rates.’ In the case of IUI, the sperm is injected into the woman’s uterus.