There are many dif­fer­ent types of bird mi­gra­tion...

Countryfile Magazine - - November In The Country -

Sea­sonal This is a move­ment be­tween breed­ing and non-breed­ing ranges. Sum­mer vis­i­tors ar­rive from the south and win­ter from the north.

Lat­i­tu­di­nal This is the mi­gra­tion from north­ern re­gions to south­ern, and vice versa.

Lon­gi­tu­di­nal Par­tic­u­larly com­mon in con­ti­nen­tal Europe, this is the move­ment of birds be­tween east­ern and west­ern re­gions.

Ir­rup­tions Ir­reg­u­lar mi­gra­tions are caused by a lack of food and wa­ter, re­sult­ing in large num­bers of birds fly­ing to un­fa­mil­iar ar­eas.

No­madic Like ir­rup­tions, these re­sult from a lack of vi­tal re­sources, but birds cover shorter dis­tances and stay within a fa­mil­iar range.

Alti­tu­di­nal This is a move­ment from high to low ground dur­ing the colder months, usu­ally over short dis­tances. Sky­larks do this.

Moult Dur­ing moult­ing sea­son – of­ten a vul­ner­a­ble time for birds – species such as shel­ducks head to safer grounds.

Drift On very rare oc­ca­sions, mi­grat­ing birds ‘drift’ away from their nor­mal routes as a re­sult of storms, for ex­am­ple bluethroats in Nor­folk.

Re­verse This is most fre­quently seen in au­tumn when young birds be­come con­fused, fly­ing against their ex­pected route.

Dis­per­sal This oc­curs when ju­ve­nile birds are forced to leave fledg­ing grounds to find new ter­ri­tory – it’s not a true mi­gra­tion.

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