Prune in the spring (March or April), aim­ing to avoid the hard frosts. The time to start is when you no­tice the leaf and flower buds start to swell. The gen­eral rule is, the harder you prune the more vig­or­ous the new shoots will be. So, if your rose is get­ting leggy or spindly you may wish to be brave, but if the bush is a good shape al­ready then you don’t need to take the stems so far back. Start by cut­ting out any dead, brown wood. Then look at where stems are cross­ing or over­crowded and take off some of those. Cut the rest of the stems about 1 cm above a bud, cut­ting straight across rather than at an an­gle.

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