In the ranks
The new order was pushing out the old among the men who fought during the late Tudor period
English and Spanish forces faced off across battlefields on land and at sea
During a period of military innovation, the battlefield was transforming and gunpowder weaponry was firmly in the ascendancy. As technological advancements were made, artillery became increasingly important both on land and at sea. The days of heavy cavalry commanding the field were gone, and armies increased in size and artillery, arquebuses and muskets began to dominate.
“LIFE FOR THE COMMON SAILOR WAS HARD, WHETHER IN THE NAVY OR IN A PRIVATELY OWNED VESSEL”
English sailors weren’t simply skilled seamen: they could operate artillery and fight effectively hand to hand