TIME­LINE

From the Black Sea to the Pa­cific Ocean, the con­flict be­tween the Rus­sian and Ot­toman Em­pires spread far beyond the penin­sula

History of War - - CONTENTS -

1 BAT­TLE OF OLTENITA

The first bat­tle of the Crimean War ac­tu­ally takes place in Ro­ma­nia be­tween Rus­sian and Ot­toman forces in the re­gion of the River Danube. The Ot­tomans win a tac­ti­cal vic­tory but are un­able to ad­vance on Bucharest and drive the in­vad­ing Rus­sians out of their ter­ri­to­ries.

2 BAT­TLE OF SINOP

The Rus­sian Navy wins a de­ci­sive vic­tory against the Ot­tomans on the north­ern Turk­ish Black Sea coast. A tech­no­log­i­cal game-changer in naval war­fare, Sinop is no­table for its ex­ten­sive use of ex­plo­sive shells. The Rus­sian vic­tory also brings Bri­tain and France into the war.

3 SIEGE OF CALAFAT

The Ot­tomans de­fend Calafat in south­ern Ro­ma­nia against the Rus­sians. Dur­ing a four-month siege, the Rus­sians suf­fer heavy losses from dis­ease and at­tacks from the Ot­toman for­ti­fied po­si­tions be­fore they even­tu­ally with­draw.

A French car­toon mocks Rus­sian at­tempts to take Calafat

4 SIEGE OF SILISTRA

Like at Calafat, the Ot­tomans de­fend an­other town against the Rus­sians – this time in Bul­garia. Silistra is well for­ti­fied with an in­ner ci­tadel and ten outer forts. Some Rus­sian as­saults are suc­cess­ful but the Ot­tomans are able to stay sup­plied un­til the be­siegers re­turn to po­si­tions north of the Danube.

5 BAT­TLE OF KUREKDERE

An Ot­toman army of 40,000 marches to­wards the city of Alexan­dropol (Gyumri) in Ar­me­nia and fight an out­num­bered Rus­sian force of ap­prox­i­mately 20,000 men. The Ot­tomans make a series of strate­gic blun­ders, which en­ables the Rus­sians to win one of their few land vic­to­ries of the war.

6 BAT­TLE OF THE ALMA

The Bri­tish and French (with Ot­toman sup­port) fight their first land bat­tle af­ter land­ing on the Crimean Penin­sula. The Al­lies march to­wards the strate­gi­cally im­por­tant port of Sev­astopol but the Rus­sians make a stand on heights south of the River Alma. Al­though they in­cur heavy ca­su­al­ties while at­tack­ing the Rus­sians up­hill, the Al­lies win the bat­tle.

“A TECH­NO­LOG­I­CAL GAME-CHANGER IN NAVAL WAR­FARE, SINOP IS NO­TABLE FOR ITS EX­TEN­SIVE USE OF EX­PLO­SIVE SHELLS”

7 SIEGE OF SEV­ASTOPOL

Al­lied ef­forts in the Crimea con­cen­trate on be­sieg­ing Sev­astopol (the home of the Rus­sian Black Sea Fleet) with hun­dreds of thou­sands of men. All bat­tles on the penin­sula are fought with the ul­ti­mate aim of tak­ing the port, which it­self is sub­jected to many bom­bard­ments and as­saults. Its even­tual fall marks the Rus­sians’ de­feat in the war.

8 BAT­TLE OF BALA­CLAVA

25,000 Rus­sians at­tempt to dis­tract the Al­lies by at­tack­ing in the di­rec­tion of the Bri­tish sup­ply port of Bala­clava. Al­though the ac­tual bat­tle is in­de­ci­sive, Bala­clava be­comes leg­endary in Bri­tish mil­i­tary his­tory for the ‘Thin Red Line’ ac­tion of the 93rd High­land Reg­i­ment and the in­fa­mous ‘Charge of the Light Brigade’.

9 BAT­TLE OF INKERMAN

42,000 Rus­sians launch a sur­prise dawn at­tack against out­num­bered Bri­tish po­si­tions at Inkerman. Con­fused, of­ten cut off fight­ing oc­curs in thick fog al­though the Bri­tish pre­vail af­ter doggedly de­ter­mined com­bat and the ar­rival of French re­in­force­ments.

“ALL BAT­TLES ON THE PENIN­SULA ARE FOUGHT WITH THE UL­TI­MATE AIM OF TAK­ING THE PORT, WHICH IT­SELF IS SUB­JECTED TO MANY BOM­BARD­MENTS AND AS­SAULTS”

10 BAT­TLE OF EUPATORIA

The Ot­tomans trans­fer sol­diers from the Balkans to the west­ern Crimean port of Eupatoria. The Rus­sians at­tempt to make a sur­prise at­tack on Eupatoria’s gar­ri­son but heavy Al­lied ground and naval sup­port force them to re­treat. The Ot­toman-led vic­tory en­sures to­tal com­mand of the Black Sea and the con­tin­u­a­tion of the Siege of Sev­astopol. Eupatoria is there­fore the most im­por­tant en­gage­ment on the penin­sula beyond Sev­astopol.

11 SIEGE OF KARS

Al­though Sev­astopol falls on 9 Septem­ber 1855, the last ma­jor op­er­a­tion of the war con­tin­ues in north­east Turkey. The Ot­toman city of Kars has been be­sieged by the Rus­sians since June 1855 and Bri­tish Gen­eral Fenwick Wil­liams or­gan­ises a de­fence. The Rus­sians in­cur 7,500 ca­su­al­ties but Wil­liams is forced to sur­ren­der be­cause of sup­ply short­ages. De­spite this vic­tory, Rus­sia has lost the war.

30 NOVEM­BER 1853

4 NOVEM­BER 1853 Ot­toman horse­men charge at the Rus­sian in­fantry at Oltenita

MARCH-JUNE 1854 The vic­to­ri­ous Ot­toman gar­ri­son sal­lies out of Silistra

FE­BRU­ARY-MAY 1854

Flames from burn­ing ships light up the sky at Sinop

Kurekdere is the only bat­tle of the Crimean War to be fought on Ar­me­nian soil 6 AU­GUST 1854

20 SEPTEM­BER 1854 The 2nd Ri­fle Brigade leads the Bri­tish Light Di­vi­sion across the Alma

17 OC­TO­BER 1854-9 SEPTEM­BER 1855 25 OC­TO­BER 1854 5 NOVEM­BER 1854

The ac­tions of each reg­i­ment count at Inkerman, which be­comes known as ‘The Sol­dier’s Bat­tle’

The de­ci­sive French vic­tory at the Bat­tle of Malakoff dur­ing the siege leads to the fall of Sev­astopol

‘The Thin Red Line’ be­comes a fig­ure of speech for any thinly spread mil­i­tary unit that holds firm against at­tack

Fenwick Wil­liams ca­pit­u­lates to the Rus­sians. He is treated to an hon­ourable cap­tiv­ity and is even in­tro­duced to Tsar Alexan­der II

Egyp­tian troops in the Ot­toman army charge the Rus­sians at Eupatoria 7-9 AU­GUST 1855 JUNE-29 NOVEM­BER 1855

17 FE­BRU­ARY 1855

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