How Chinchorro mummies were made
The Chinchorro primarily used two methods to preserve their dead: black mummification from 5,000–3,000 BCE and red mummification from 2,500–2,000 BCE. The black mummy technique involved separating the head, arms and legs of the deceased person and drying the body using heat before the flesh was stripped from the bone. The brain was then removed by cutting the skull in half at about eye level. The skull and body were then packed with material such as feathers and then tied back together.
A red mummy, on the other hand, had incisions made in the trunk and shoulders of the body to remove the internal organs and dry the cavity, and the head was completely removed from the body. The body was then stuffed with materials before being sewn up, with the head reattached after the brain had been removed. A human-hair wig would then be placed on the head, and everything apart from this single item would be painted with red ochre, a substance common in south Brazil.