1 This clutch master cylinder reservoir is empty because the fluid was all drained off prior to changing the old clutch slave cylinder for a new one. 2 As the slave cylinder is tricky to reach, a little funnel helps get the clutch fluid filled without causing spillage and mess around the bulkhead. 3 The brake master cylinder is empty because the fluid had been drained in order to fit new brake pipes and flexi hoses, as well as brake calipers. 4 The brake and clutch fluid reservoirs must be filled with fluid, before any of the bleeding methods are used – pressure, vacuum or traditional. 5 Pressure brake bleeding tool has replacement reservoir cap and fits modern brake and clutch fluid reservoirs, with quick-release hose attachment. 6 The reservoir adapter cap is fitted in place of the original cap and tightened so that a good seal is created to ensure fluid will not leak. 7 The pressure brake bleeding tool is filled with sufficient fresh brake fluid to complete the job. It can hold up to 2.5 litres of fluid. 8 The feed hose from the brake bleeding tool has a quick release connector which attaches to the reservoir adapter cap, allowing the fresh fluid to flow. 9 The brake bleeding tool incorporates a hand pump, which is operated to pressurise the system – fluid will then flow when a bleed nipple is loosened.
10 For a conventional clutch system, as found in most Defenders, a low pressure of around 12 psi is sufficient to bleed the system. 11 Clutch slave cylinders are usually placed in a restricted location and most are best accessed from below the vehicle, particularly in Defenders. 12 A tube is placed over the bleed nipple to direct emerging fluid into a brake bleeding bottle with non-return valve, as the air is expelled from the lines. 13 The brake bleeding bottle costs around £25 and is quick and clean in operation. The clear tube allows for easy observation of air bubbles and fluid. 14 This non-return valve in the brake bleeding bottle is particularly useful when conventional two-person brake or clutch bleeding is being carried out. 15 As soon as all of the air is expelled and the system is filled with brake fluid, the pressure is released from the tool by pressing this valve.