TIME­LINE

The Herald - - ARMISTICE: 100 YEARS -

KEY mil­i­tary events of the day be­fore the Armistice is an­nounced.

Early hours of the morn­ing

On the last day of the pe­riod known as a Hun­dred Days, Al­lied ef­forts in­ten­sify af­ter ru­mours that an armistice is close to be­ing con­cluded, mo­ti­vat­ing troops to press on and wipe out as many forces as pos­si­ble. Al­lied forces dump 20 tonnes of bombs on en­emy tar­gets and raid two rail­way sta­tions in an ef­fort.

6am

A de­jected Kaiser Wil­helm II of Ger­many ar­rives at Eys­den sta­tion in Hol­land where he is of­fered po­lit­i­cal asy­lum. Chan­cel­lor Prince Max of Baden, right, an­nounced the Kaiser’s ab­di­ca­tion the day be­fore.

7am

Ma­jor Gen­eral HK Bethell’s forces and the 1st South African In­fantry leave Solre le Chateau and ad­vance three miles north­east to­wards en­emy lines in Hel­strud, which is close to the Bel­gium bor­der. Their progress is ham­pered by poor con­di­tions and the rain and fog.

7am

Air re­ports alert Al­lied troops – prin­ci­pally The Third Army – to the fact that en­emy lines have been sighted in the woods south of Cousolre, France and also north be­tween Thure and Sam­bre in Bel­gium. Troops find no signs of the en­emy un­til they ar­rive in Thure.

9:30am

Head of the ad­vanced guard of Ma­jor Gen­eral HK Bethell’s forces en­ters Hestrud, which is be­ing held by 12th

Lancers.

10:30am

Ma­jor Gen­eral HK Bethell’s forces ad­vance east­wards to­wards the Ger­mans who are out­side Hestrud and be­gin fight­ing.

10:50am

Ger­mans launch a coun­ter­at­tack against Ma­jor Gen­eral HK Bethell’s re­sult­ing in the death of six Ger­mans only. Ger­man troops are driven back to Gran­drieu.

11am

The Third Army’s ad­vanced guard as­sumes pro­tec­tion of the whole front and move troops two miles for­ward to cover Fer­riere-la-grande, Rousies, As­sev­ent and Elesmes.

12:30pm

On Ma­jor Gen­eral Bethell’s or­ders, 199th Bri­gade march from Clair­fays north-east to­wards Hestrud to pro­vide reinforcements and fill gap be­tween the French and the South African bri­gade, with the help of the 20th Hus­sars.

2:30pm

Ma­jor Gen­eral Bethell’s head­quar­ters re­ceive an air re­port that a solid line of the Ger­man army are snaking their way along the Eppe-sau­vage Mont­bliart Road to­ward them. A mes­sage is sent to troops to in­fil­trate en­emy lines.

3pm

Troops from the Third Army ar­rive in La Longueville, France close to the Bel­gian bor­der. They have spent 22 hours march­ing 35 miles from Caudry at 5pm the day be­fore in an ef­fort to ad­vance to­wards en­emy lines north of Solre-sur-sam­bre in Bel­gium.

3pm

High ground east and north-east of Hestrud is cap­tured by Ma­jor Gen­eral HK Bethell’s forces, push­ing the Ger­mans back.

3pm

In­fantry of the 29th Divi­sion reached the Bois de Leuze from Re­naix in Bel­gium with­out see­ing any Ger­man troops, but the 7th Dragon Guards,

who are on their way to cap­ture La­hamide, are pre­vented from do­ing so af­ter they are fired at by ma­chine guns.

4:35pm

The mes­sage to in­fil­trate ad­vanc­ing en­emy lines com­ing down Eppe-sau­vage Mont­bliart Road reaches the ad­vanced guard. How­ever, the ar­rival of evening and fail­ing light ham­pers ef­forts. An RAF squadron steps in and pre-emp­tively shoots down 14 of the en­emy’s planes.

6:30pm

In­creas­ingly des­per­ate en­emy forces shell Solre le Cha­teus sta­tion and one of their am­mu­ni­tion dumps, caus­ing an ex­plo­sion. How­ever, the am­mu­ni­tion train – which is no doubt the tar­get – es­capes dam­age.

Other key

mo­ments

French forces re­take Méz­ières dur­ing the Meuse Ar­gonne Of­fen­sive push­ing Ger­mans back east from their po­si­tions at the Hin­den­burg Line and cut­ting Ger­mans off from their im­por­tant rail routes sup­ply­ing their front lines

Leuze-en-hain­uat in Bel­gium is lib­er­ated from Ger­man con­trol. It was first oc­cu­pied in Au­gust 2014. Its com­mu­nal ceme­tery was used by Ger­man med­i­cal units.

Ghent in Bel­gium is re-oc­cu­pied by Bel­gian forces for the first time since it fell to Ger­many on Oc­to­ber 12, 1914.

Dix­mude is stormed by Ger­man forces and lost by the Franco-bel­gian gar­ri­son in a se­ries of ex­changes known as the Bat­tle of

Ypres, which took place be­tween Oc­to­ber 19 and Novem­ber 22.

The King of Ro­ma­nia, pic­tured right, re­pu­di­ated the Treaty of Bucharest, a peace treaty it had signed with the Cen­tral Pow­ers in May 2018 and re-en­ters the war, which lead to it be­ing on the same side of the Al­lied Pow­ers when the armistice was signed.

The 29th In­dian Bri­gade, un­der Bri­gadier-gen­eral Herbert Vaughn Cox, stormed Cheikh Saïd in South­ern Ara­bia (present day Ye­men) and de­stroyed Ot­toman de­fences.

Ger­many falls into the hands of the lead­ers of its most prom­i­nent po­lit­i­cal par­ties af­ter Kaiser Wil­helm goes into ex­ile. Its new lead­ers are un­sure of how to re­spond to the Al­lies’ de­mands for a cease­fire. Mil­i­tary com­man­der Paul von Hin­den­burg ad­vised them to sign the armistice.

So­cial Demo­crat Friedrich Ebert, who be­came Chan­cel­lor af­ter the Kaiser went into ex­ile, in­structed Catholic Cen­tre Party head Matthias Erzberger to sign an armistice.

The Ebert-groener pact took place be­tween Friedrich Ebert and head of the Ger­man gov­ern­ment Gen­eral Wil­helm Groener Quar­ter­mas­ter Gen­eral of the Ger­man Army in Spa, Bel­gium. Groener as­sured Ebert of the sup­port of the armed forces if he re­in­stated the mil­i­tary hi­er­ar­chy and, with the help of the army, quashed left­ist up­ris­ings.

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