The Jewish Chronicle - - JUDAISM -

1632 born in Am­s­ter­dam to a refugee fa­ther from Por­tu­gal

1656 ex­com­mu­ni­cated by Sephardi au­thor­i­ties

1670 his Trac­ta­tus The­o­logi­coPoliti­cus, ar­gu­ing for re­li­gious free­dom and against re­vealed reli­gion, pub­lished

1674 com­ple­tion of his work on Ethics

1677 died of con­sump­tion

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