Six No­bel prizes in phys­i­ol­ogy or medicine’ have been awarded to a to­tal of 10 sci­en­tists for their ground­break­ing bi­o­log­i­cal work based on fruit fly re­search:

The Observer - - IN FOCUS / SCIENCE -

1933

Thomas Hunt Mor­gan used drosophila to un­cover the role played by chro­mo­somes in hered­ity

1946

Her­mann Joseph Muller used X-ray ir­ra­di­a­tion to in­crease mu­ta­tion rates in fruit flies

1995

Ed­ward B Lewis, Chris­tiane NüssleinVol­hard, and Eric F Wi­eschaus used drosophila to un­der­stand ge­netic con­trol of em­bry­onic de­vel­op­ment

2004

Richard Axel con­cen­trated on odour re­cep­tors and the or­gan­i­sa­tion of the ol­fac­tory sys­tem

2011

Jules A Hoffmann was given the award for his re­search on the ac­ti­va­tion of in­nate im­mu­nity

2017

Jef­frey C Hall, Michael Ros­bash and Michael W Young won the prize for un­cov­er­ing the molec­u­lar mech­a­nisms that con­trol cir­ca­dian rhythms

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