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1649 The Cos­sack Het­manate, in mod­ern cen­tral Ukraine, is es­tab­lished fol­low­ing a re­bel­lion against the Poles

1764 Cather­ine II abol­ishes the Het­manate af­ter years of the Rus­sian em­pire ab­sorb­ing Ukrainian ter­ri­tory 1918 Ukraine de­clares in­de­pen­dence fol­low­ing the col­lapse of tsarist Rus­sia

1921 The Ukrainian Soviet So­cial­ist Repub­lic is es­tab­lished af­ter Rus­sian army con­quers two-thirds of Ukraine. The western third be­comes part of an in­de­pen­dent Poland 1941 Nazis oc­cupy Ukraine un­til 1944 1945 Western Ukrainian lands an­nexed by the Soviet Union 1991 Ukraine be­comes an in­de­pen­dent state af­ter the dis­o­lu­tion of the USSR

2004 Peace­ful protests, known as the Orange Revo­lu­tion, launched by op­po­si­tion leader Vik­tor Yushchenko, forc­ing the over­turn of a rigged elec­tion

2013 Tens of thou­sands take to the streets, ac­cus­ing the gov­ern­ment of bow­ing to Krem­lin pres­sure and back­track­ing on plans to sign a EU trade deal . The gov­ern­ment uses vi­o­lence against pro­test­ers, who oc­cupy Kiev’s cen­tral square for three months

2014 Pres­i­dent Vik­tor Yanukovych is ousted, prompt­ing un­rest in Rus­so­phone ar­eas in east and south Ukraine. Rus­sia takes con­trol of Crimea, claim­ing it is pro­tect­ing eth­nic Rus­sians from far-right ex­trem­ists who over­threw the pres­i­dent. Fight­ing be­tween gov­ern­ment forces and Rus­sia-backed sep­a­ratists con­tin­ues. Moscow de­nies Kiev’s claims that it is send­ing troops and heavy weapons to the re­gion

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