How to get out of that
If you do find the bow starting to bury it is important not to panic. You need to get the crew weight aft as soon as possible to balance the boat and to help lift the bow. Generally don’t sail too low in these conditions; you need to be slightly higher to keep the bow up.
When the nose gets completely buried there is a danger of losing steerage and rolling out, which will probably end up in a Chinese gybe, and is definitely not recommended.
How to avoid the situation in the first place
In the first scenario, assuming it is a bear away round the top mark, find a nice exit angle – not too high or too low – and a decent lane down which you can bear away. If the bowman goes forward it is important they keep their weight out, and aft as much as possible. The helmsman should sail a bit higher than normal until things settle down because this helps to keep the boat under the spinnaker, while lifting the bow a bit.
It is important for the crew to have a plan in place before they go into the top mark. Everyone needs to know what they are doing, and the vang needs to be freed off. The