RUSSIA FROM 1985 TO 2013
1985 – Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
1988 – Gorbachev is the first president of the Soviet Union.
1991 – Boris Yeltsin is elected as the first president of the Russian Federation.
1999 – Yeltsin resigns, leaving the presidency in the hands of the then prime minister Vladimir Putin.
2006 – Anna Politkovskaya, campaigning journalist and outspoken critic of Putin, is murdered; Alexander Litvinenko is poisoned.
2012 – Members of feminist punk band Pussy Riot are jailed for performing an anti-Putin protest song in Moscow.
2013 – Putin introduces new laws including fines for unsanctioned protests, stiffer libel penalties, wider definition of treason and restrictions on websites.