RUS­SIA FROM 1985 TO 2013

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1985 – Mikhail Gor­bachev be­comes Gen­eral Sec­re­tary of the Com­mu­nist Party of the Soviet Union.

1988 – Gor­bachev is the first pres­i­dent of the Soviet Union.

1991 – Boris Yeltsin is elected as the first pres­i­dent of the Rus­sian Fed­er­a­tion.

1999 – Yeltsin re­signs, leav­ing the pres­i­dency in the hands of the then prime min­is­ter Vladimir Putin.

2006 – Anna Politkovskaya, cam­paign­ing jour­nal­ist and out­spo­ken critic of Putin, is mur­dered; Alexan­der Litvi­nenko is poi­soned.

2012 – Mem­bers of fem­i­nist punk band Pussy Riot are jailed for per­form­ing an anti-Putin protest song in Moscow.

2013 – Putin in­tro­duces new laws in­clud­ing fines for un­sanc­tioned protests, stiffer li­bel penal­ties, wider def­i­ni­tion of trea­son and re­stric­tions on web­sites.

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