Do they have a bladder?
QI read that chickens have a bladder – when I process my spare cockerels for our own meat, I have never found such a thing. Can you explain how they produce urine please?
AVictoria says: You are quite right, they do not have a bladder and, in fact, birds do not produce liquid urine. Their paired kidneys (found under the lumbar spine) produce solid urates instead which is the white tip seen on each normal dropping. This is an adaptation for flying as it weighs less than urine. Most birds recycle moisture from the rectum, particularly those living in hot climates, so they do not need to expend energy finding more water. Egg laying hens must not be restricted from water as eggs are 75% water and laying is easily limited by dehydration.