Milk cancer: Solving problems.


October 20 is special day for Ukraine it is known as the Day dadicated to the Control of Breast Cancer (CBC). The breast cancer takes the first place in the structural and ecological morbidity and mortality rates of the population. In Ukraine, every fifth woman dies because of breast cancer. At least one in 10 women has cancer after 50 years of age (the highest number in the age of 50-70 years with an annual tendency to rejuvenate). Survey shows a steady increase in the incidence of breast cancer in the last 20 years without a tendency to stabilize. According to the updated data of the National Chancellery in Ukraine in 2015, the incidence rate (73.8 cases per 100 thousand population of the population) and mortality rates of breast cancer (30.2 cases per 100 thousand population population) are approaching the level of countries of the European Union. The highest number of the disease are in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa, Mykolayiv, Zaporizhzhia and Dnipropetrovsk regions. Men of Ukraine also face with oclological problems, but it is occupied by one of the last traumatic sites in the oncological disease, on average 1 case of breast cancer males reaches over 130 cases of breast cancer in women.

Allocate a large number of risk factors for the development of breast cancer:

• nodal densification in mammary glands

• Early mense (up to 12 years) or the late menopause (55 years);

• excessive weight;

• interruption of pregnancy, especially before the first birth;

• first child after 30 years;

• Childbirth with the exception of breastfeeding;

• atypical hyperplasia of the tissues of breast cancer (according to the histological study);

• Taking hormonal drugs during many years after menopause;

• increased density of dairy glands on a mammogram.

It is also known that the incidence of tumors increases if a woman has following diseases (breast cancer, ovarian cancer). In such cases, the morbidity of breast cancer increases by 2-3 times. Known genetic markers for the development of breast cancer - the presence of mutations of BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genes. However, family history and genetic surveys give an opportunity to calculate the risk of disease, but are not required for the development of breast cancer in each specific person.

Significant risk factors are smoking, excessive alcohol abuse. Yes, smokers have a risk of breast cancer in 5 times more than non-smokers. High risk of breast cancer have pacifiers, which received radiation therapy or excess ultraviolet radiation in the the chest area. Injuries of mollusclerosis of any nature, especially with hematomas and not treated properly, increase the risk of breast cancer. However, we should take into accountant that half of the women who have breast cancer, had not had one any risk factors mentioned above, wso can not exclude the possibility of developing this disease even if a woman leans a healthy life style. That is why a huge role in diagnosis establishing plays examination of a certain age group without any


For breast cancer following methods are:

- Palpatine research has low efficiency. - Mammography - has a highefficiency. Mammogram is very important to a woman older than 45 years old and every 2 years, with the taking into account family history. In countries of the European Union, screening of breast cancer is to conduct a mammogram every 2 years for women aged 50 to 70 years. Self-examination of mammory glands as a screening method is not used, since it does not lead to an increase in incidence detection of breast cancer in the early stage and decrease mortality.

With a mammographic screening, breast cancer is detected in the preclinical stage.

Unfortunately, in Ukraine the mammographic scanning is only in a process of development. Early stages of the disease, as a rule, go asymptomatic. Self-awarenees of women and professional medical assistance can lead to reducing of the number of breast cancer cases.

The presence of following symptoms:

• the presence of swelling in the mammary gland;

• change the shape of the size of the mollusclerosis;

• disorders of skin structure;

• redness, peeling or swelling of the skin; retraction, asymmetry, crack and wound on the nipples;

• consolidation and increase in the size of the lumbar lymph nodes.

We should not forget that some symptoms of breast cancer can be similar to beign tumors, so we should not make a sharp diagnosis. In such cases, visit your family doctor, have an instrumental examination (mammography, ultrasound, MRI), and, if necessary, obtain an advice from an obstetrician-mamolot on the implementation of additional diagnostic procedures, including biopsy-formation. The diagnosis of breast cancer is followed by several goals, first of all - it is a stage of prevalence of the disease, histological confirmation of the diagnosis and clarification of the biological characteristics of the tumor, which makes it possible to determine the plan for special treatment.

The prognosis of breast cancer directly depends on the timeliness and the detection. At an early stage of breast cancer, more than 90% of women are recovered by postpartum treatment. Success struggle with breast cancer in the countries of the European Union and the United States is based on two principles - early detection of the disease in mammographic screening and treatment of patients in specialized health clinics in accordance with modern achievements of evidence medication. Compliance with these principles can lead to succesful struggle agianst the breast cancer in Ukraine.

Zavoloka Oleksandr Vasilovich, onkohirurg-mamologist, patron of the head

Of the oncologic dispensary.

Украї­на, м. Оде­са, 65010, вул. Nezhdanovoi 32 References: (048) 720 28 05

Priymalnya head lykarya: (048) 720 26 72 Email:

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