NUTS & BOLTS

4 Wheel & Off Road - - CONTENTS -

QI’m in the process of con­vert­ing my 1978 F-250 to fuel in­jec­tion, and I had a ques­tion about fuel pumps. Sev­eral peo­ple I’ve spo­ken with tell me I should do what­ever I need to do in or­der to have the fuel pump in the tank. This is kind of a big pain. It would be re­ally easy to just add an ex­ter­nal high-pressure pump and mount it on the fram­erail, not to men­tion much eas­ier to ac­cess should the pump go bad. I un­der­stand there are very spe­cific mount­ing re­quire­ments for an ex­ter­nal pump, but I al­ready have a great spot to put one that meets all of them. Are in­ter­nal pumps re­ally that much bet­ter? How am I sup­posed to add a pump to a tank that isn’t de­signed for one?

CHAR­LIE M. Via nuts@4wor.com

AIt’s hard to deny the ben­e­fits of fuel in­jec­tion these days, es­pe­cially for of­froad use. Retrofitting a fuel-in­jec­tion sys­tem is eas­ier than ever thanks to the va­ri­ety of good af­ter­mar­ket sys­tems on the mar­ket, and be­cause of this, more and more fuel pump solutions are avail­able all the time.

You are ab­so­lutely cor­rect. Most of the time adding an ex­ter­nal pump to a fuel sys­tem that orig­i­nally fed a car­bu­re­tor is much eas­ier than go­ing with an in­ter­nal pump. That said, we would still rec­om­mend go­ing with an in­ter­nal pump if pos­si­ble. Although it’s a lot more work up front and harder to ac­cess for ser­vice, the main ad­van­tage to an in­ter­nal pump is cool­ing. Be­cause the pump is im­mersed in gas, the pump stays cool and lasts much longer. The big­gest en­emy of any­thing elec­tri­cal is heat and mois­ture, and ex­ter­nal pumps are sub­jected to a lot of both. Mostly for this rea­son, it has been our ex­pe­ri­ence that nine times out of 10, an in­ter­nal pump is go­ing to be more re­li­able and is there­fore worth the ex­tra in­stal­la­tion has­sle.

Your in­ter­nal pump op­tions in­clude us­ing a bed-mounted fuel cell, retrofitting a lat­er­model EFI tank to your truck, or retrofitting a pump to your ex­ist­ing tank. There are dif­fer­ent costs and in­stal­la­tion dif­fi­cul­ties as­so­ci­ated with each one, but retrofitting a pump to your ex­ist­ing tank is eas­ier than ever with Aero­mo­tive’s Phan­tom fuel sys­tems (aero­mo­tiveinc.com). The sys­tem is pretty slick and of­fers a com­pre­hen­sive, easy way to add an in-tank pump. You cut a hole in the top of your tank, and the kit in­cludes ev­ery­thing you need to in­stall, se­cure, and seal an in-tank pump. The Phan­tom kits are avail­able as both re­turn and re­turn­less sys­tems to match what­ever fuel in­jec­tion sys­tem you use.

If you still de­cide to go with an ex­ter­nal pump, we would rec­om­mend us­ing a com­mon one and car­ry­ing a spare. We’ve had vary­ing de­grees of suc­cess us­ing a Ford E2000 pump. For what­ever rea­son, some of our ve­hi­cles have done well with an E2000 and oth­ers have not. An E2000 pump puts out about 80 psi, so it will need to be reg­u­lated for most EFI sys­tems and it will also need a re­turn line. Mount the pump as close to and even with the bot­tom of the tank as pos­si­ble, and buy the high­est-qual­ity pump you can find. Aero­mo­tive of­fers some ex­ter­nal brush­less fuel pumps that we’ve heard good things about as well, but those aren’t avail­able at your lo­cal parts store if one hap­pens to go bad.

One last op­tion is to use the ex­ist­ing me­chan­i­cal low-pressure fuel sys­tem to feed an un­der­hood sump con­tain­ing a high-pressure pump that in turn feeds the EFI, such as what is of­fered by Edel­brock (edel­brock.com). Some peo­ple feel the sys­tem is overly com­pli­cated be­cause you’re re­ly­ing on both a me­chan­i­cal and elec­tric pump, but this op­tion is the least in­va­sive if the pri­or­ity is to re­main as close to stock as pos­si­ble or to go back to a car­bu­re­tor. The sump takes up some room, but with the cav­ernous en­gine com­part­ment on your F-250 it shouldn’t be a prob­lem find­ing a place to mount it.

SPICER 18 TO DANA 300

QI am in the mid­dle of do­ing a front and rear axle swap in my 1950 Willy’s

CJ-3A, and I’m try­ing to fig­ure out what my op­tions are for cen­tered rear out­put trans­fer cases. The Jeep is equipped with a T-90 three-speed trans­mis­sion. I re­cently pulled the Spicer 18 trans­fer case off my Jeep T-90, and I have a T-90 with a Dana

300 out of a Scout II. My thought was I could swap the IH Dana 300 onto the Jeep

T-90, but I’ve been read­ing that the in­put shafts might be dif­fer­ent. Any help on this would be greatly ap­pre­ci­ated.

COREY H. Via nuts@4wor.com

AFor starters, it’s doubt­ful that you have a fac­tory In­ter­na­tional Har­vester Dana

300 and T-90 com­bi­na­tion. While IH used both T-90s and Dana 300s, the two were never used to­gether in a fac­tory ap­pli­ca­tion. If you’re cer­tain that you have an IH

T-90, then most likely you have a Dana 20 at­tached to it (which is not a bad thing). If you’re cer­tain that you have an IH Dana

300, then you prob­a­bly have a dif­fer­ent trans­mis­sion than a T-90 (though it is pos­si­ble to bolt an IH T-90 to an IH Dana 300; more on that in a minute).

IH Dana 20s and Dana 300s are of­ten mis­taken for one an­other, as they look sim­i­lar. The best way to tell them apart is know­ing that the Dana 300 has an alu­minum tail­hous­ing for the rear out­put while the Dana 20’s is cast iron, and the Dana 20 has a 1-inch-deep

sump in the in­spec­tion cover while the Dana

300’s is fairly smooth and flat.

If you have an IH Dana 300, then you have a very rare and de­sir­able trans­fer case. Used for only one year (1980), the Scout Dana

300 uses the same “Texas” bolt pat­tern and out­put shaft style as the ear­lier Dana 20, which al­lows it to bolt di­rectly to many Jeep and IH trans­mis­sions that were orig­i­nally mated to Dana 20s while also of­fer­ing a

2.61:1 low-range. This was a ma­jor im­prove­ment over the Dana 20’s 2.02:1 low-range. Be­cause the Dana 20 and the Spicer 18 also used the same bolt pat­tern and drive gear style, this opens up the trans­mis­sion se­lec­tion even more. Fur­ther, the mat­ing adapter can be as short as an inch long de­pend­ing on the trans­mis­sion, which is a big help on drive­shaft length.

The is­sue with the IH Dana 300 is avail­abil­ity (both the cases them­selves as well as parts), and only the drive gear from man­uale­quipped IH 300s are adaptable to trans­mis­sions that were equipped with Jeep or IH Dana

20s. The drive gears from IH 300s be­hind

TF727s are dif­fer­ent and not com­pat­i­ble. Like the cases them­selves, the IH 300 drive gears are no longer avail­able new. With such a unique com­bi­na­tion of at­tributes and know­ing that just 30,000 1980 Scouts were made (many of which were equipped with au­to­mat­ics), it’s easy to un­der­stand why Scout 300s are rare and com­mand high prices.

Back to your project: Ac­cord­ing to the in­for­ma­tion we were able to gather on the sub­ject, re­gard­less of whether you have an IH Dana

300 or Dana 20, as long as it was orig­i­nally be­hind a man­ual trans­mis­sion with a 13⁄8-inch six-spline in­put, you should be able to use what you have be­hind the Jeep T-90 with­out much is­sue. You could also use the IH T-90, but in­put shaft stick-out lengths of­ten vary within dif­fer­ent Jeep and Scout ap­pli­ca­tions, so you’ll most likely need to swap the in­put shaft be­tween the two trans­mis­sions. We’d just use the Jeep T-90 if it’s in good shape.

We would be a lit­tle leery of us­ing the Scout Dana 300 just be­cause parts are scarce, and it would be a lot of work to put it in only to have a pos­si­ble is­sue down the road and not be able to lo­cate re­place­ment parts. Al­ter­na­tively, you could use a Jeep Dana 20. As a bonus, 3:15:1 low-range kits are avail­able for Jeep and IH Dana 20s from Ad­vance Adapters (ad­vanceadapters. com) or Ter­aFlex (ter­aflex.com). If you need Dana 20 re­build kits or shifters for your project, No­vak (no­vak-adapt.com) is a great re­source for parts as well as knowl­edge of vin­tage Jeep driv­e­train com­bi­na­tions.

SCARY BRONCO

QI was won­der­ing if any­one could help me with a few ques­tions. I have a 1992 Ford Bronco. The steer­ing box is brand new, but it’s stock. There is still so much play in the steer­ing that it’s scary to drive. What can I do to this truck to highly im­prove the steer­ing?

Also I wanted to do a 1-ton rear swap on this truck. How would I do this, and what kind of sus­pen­sion would I need to make it work?

If some­one could help me with my ques­tions I would greatly ap­pre­ci­ate it.

DAVID S. Via nuts@4wor.com

AS­cary steer­ing is al­most al­ways caused by worn out com­po­nents with ex­ces­sive play. The steer­ing box is a good place

to start, but many other com­po­nents can cause your Bronco to wan­der like a drunken sailor. Have some­one wig­gle the steer­ing back and forth while you closely in­spect all of the steer­ing link­age for signs of wear or ex­cess play. Pay close at­ten­tion to tie-rod and drag-link ends, as well as the steer­ing shaft that con­nects the steer­ing col­umn to the box. TTB Ford steer­ing was pretty medi­ocre when new, so even just a bit of play can wreak havoc. If the steer­ing checks out, then move on and closely in­spect the ball joints, wheel bear­ings, and axle and sus­pen­sion pivot points. If you still don’t find any­thing, it may be time to throw in the towel and take it to a pro­fes­sional.

As for the 1-ton rear, your Bronco uses the same ba­sic leaf-spring rear sus­pen­sion as

F-250s and F-350s. Dana 60s from F-250s and

F-350s are plen­ti­ful and cheap in junk­yards, and they are pretty close to the right width for your Bronco. You will prob­a­bly have to move spring pads and shock mounts, but the phys­i­cal in­stal­la­tion won’t be that big a deal.

The trou­ble is that a 1-ton axle will be eight-lug, while your front axle is 5-on-51⁄2. This ne­ces­si­tates con­vert­ing your fron­tend to eight-lug. If you can get your hands on TTB Dana 44HD knuck­les-out as­sem­blies from a TTB F-250, you can con­vert your five-lug TTB Dana 44 to eight-lug with bolt-on parts (solid-axle Dana 44 out­ers are not com­pat­i­ble with TTB Dana 44s). You’ll need ev­ery­thing from the knuck­les out­ward, though the lock­ing hubs will be the same. We’d also grab the axle­shafts just to be safe. Be care­ful when sourc­ing Dana 44HD parts, how­ever, as

F-250s also came with Dana 50s (which are ac­tu­ally more com­mon), and Dana 50 parts will not in­ter­change with the Dana 44 stuff. The eas­i­est ways to iden­tify Dana 44HDs and Dana 50s is to look at the hub centers: Dana

50s will have larger, 4 ⁄ -inch-di­am­e­ter hubs. The re­spec­tive axle num­bers will also be cast into the cen­ter dif­fer­en­tial hous­ing.

A sec­ond op­tion would be to con­vert the

1-ton rear to 5-on-51⁄2 with cus­tom axles. I did some­thing sim­i­lar for Jp Mag­a­zine when I built a cus­tom Dana 60 for a Jeep us­ing a hous­ing sourced from an F-250 a few years ago (“Rear Dana 60 Build: Mov­ing the Fuse,” goo.gl/qduTgT). You lose a lit­tle strength and some width go­ing from a full-float axle to a semi-float, but you can take the op­por­tu­nity to up­grade to 35-spline and get much of that lost strength back. This op­tion will be more ex­pen­sive than con­vert­ing the front axle to eight-lug, but the front axle parts may be harder to come by. In the end, keep in mind that your ex­ist­ing 8.8 rear should be fine with up to 35-inch tires and mod­er­ate use, even with a locker.

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