Long-term weight loss in a pill? Experimental drug shows promise, study says
ATLANTA — An experimental diet pill helped about half the people who tried it lose some weight and keep it off a year later without the heart problems that some earlier drugs caused, a study found.
Arena Pharmaceuticals’ lorcaserin is one of three drugs that are boosting hope for a new generation of more ef- fective weight-loss medicines. One gets a Food and Drug Administration review today, and the others later this year.
In the study, lorcaserin caused more people to lose at least 5 percent of their body weight over one year, more than twice the rate achieved by those on dummy pills.
Most people don’t stick to diets. And diet pills have had bad side effects or can’t be taken long-term. A low point came in 1997 when the popular “fen-phen” was pulled from the market after it was tied to heart valve problems.
But now comes lorcaserin, a blue tablet that would be the first novel weight-loss pill in a dozen years if it wins approval. The drug targets the same appetite pathway fen-phen did but in a more selective, and perhaps safer, manner.
Results of a large companyfinanced study of it are in today’s New England Journal of Medicine.
The study involved more than 3,100 obese or overweight people given either the drug or dummy pills.
After a year, nearly 48 percent of the lorcaserin group had lost at least 5 percent of their body weight — about 13 pounds on average. Just 20 percent of the placebo group lost that much weight.
Only about half of those in the study stuck with it for a year. That’s not unusual; diet studies typically have lots of dropouts. But more of the people on lorcaserin stayed in than those on placebo, suggesting that side effects were not a problem.
A second phase of the study began after one year with the original participants who remained. Those on dummy pills kept taking them, while the people on lorcaserin were assigned either to keep getting it or to switch to dummy pills. Neither they nor their doctors knew which treatment they were receiving.
Of those in the lorcaserin group who had lost at least 5 percent of their body weight in the first year of the study, about 68 percent who kept taking the drug kept the weight off, versus 50 percent of those switched to dummy pills.
Except for headaches and dizziness, side effects were essentially no worse with the drug than placebo. There was no higher rate of heart valve problems — a key concern. However, larger studies are needed to conclusively rule out this risk.
Unlike some other obesity drugs, lorcaserin did not raise heart rates or blood pressure. In fact, cholesterol levels and other risk factors for heart disease improved in those on the drug.
“It looks very safe at this point,” said study leader Dr. Steven Smith of the SanfordBurnham Medical Research Institute in Orlando.
Some experts described the drug’s effectiveness as moderately good and its safety as apparently very good. The findings are probably sufficient to meet FDA benchmarks and win approval, they predicted.
Arena hasn’t put a price on lorcaserin.