Re­fer to these pages for in­for­ma­tion on ba­sic knit­ting tech­niques.

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Long-Tail Cast-On

Make a slip knot on the right nee­dle.

Place the thumb and in­dex fin­ger of your left hand be­tween the yarn ends with the long yarn end over your thumb, and the strand from the yarn ball over your in­dex fin­ger. Close your other fingers over the strands to hold them against your palm. Spread your thumb and in­dex fingers apart and draw the yarn into a V.

Place the nee­dle in front of the strand around your thumb and bring it un­der­neath this strand. Carry the nee­dle over and un­der the strand on your in­dex fin­ger.

Draw the strand through the loop on your thumb. Drop the loop from your thumb and draw up the strand to form a stitch on the knit­ting nee­dle.

Re­peat un­til you have cast on the num­ber of stitches in­di­cated in the pat­tern.

Knit (k)

With yarn in back, in­sert the right nee­dle from front to back into the next stitch on the left nee­dle.

Bring the yarn un­der and over the right nee­dle, wrap­ping the yarn coun­ter­clock­wise around the nee­dle.

Use the right nee­dle to pull the loop through the stitch.

Slide the stitch off the left nee­dle.

Purl (p)

With yarn in front, in­sert the right nee­dle from back to front into the next stitch on the left nee­dle.

Wrap the yarn coun­ter­clock­wise around the right nee­dle.

Use the right nee­dle to pull the loop through the stitch and to the back.

Slide the stitch off left nee­dle.

Bind Off

Bind­ing Off (knit) Knit the first two stitches on the left nee­dle. In­sert the left nee­dle into the first stitch worked on the right nee­dle, then lift that first stitch over the sec­ond stitch and off the right nee­dle. Knit the next stitch and re­peat.

When one stitch re­mains on the right nee­dle, cut the yarn and draw the tail through the last stitch to fas­ten off. Bind­ing Off (purl) Purl the first two stitches on the left nee­dle.

In­sert the left nee­dle into the first stitch worked on the right nee­dle, then lift the first stitch over the sec­ond stitch and off the right nee­dle. Purl the next stitch and re­peat.

When one stitch re­mains on the right nee­dle, cut the yarn and draw the tail through the last stitch to fas­ten off.

In­crease (inc)

Bar in­crease (knit: kfb) Knit the next stitch but do not re­move the orig­i­nal stitch from the left nee­dle.

In­sert the right nee­dle be­hind the left nee­dle and knit into the back of the same stitch.

Slip the orig­i­nal stitch off the left nee­dle. Bar In­crease: (purl: pfb) Purl the next stitch but do not re­move the orig­i­nal stitch from the left nee­dle.

In­sert the right nee­dle be­hind the left nee­dle and purl into the back of the same stitch.

Slip the orig­i­nal stitch off the left nee­dle. Make 1 With Left Twist (M1L) In­sert the left nee­dle from front to back un­der the strand that runs be­tween the stitch on the right nee­dle and the stitch on the left nee­dle.

With the right nee­dle, knit into the back of the loop on the left nee­dle.

To make this in­crease on the purl side, in­sert left nee­dle in same man­ner and purl into the back of the loop. Make 1 With Right Twist (M1R) In­sert the left nee­dle from back to front un­der the strand that runs be­tween the stitch on the right nee­dle and the stitch on the left nee­dle.

With the right nee­dle, knit into the front of the loop on the left nee­dle.

To make this in­crease on the purl side, in­sert left nee­dle in same man­ner and purl into the front of the loop.

Make 1With Back­ward Loop Use your thumb to make a back­ward loop of yarn over the right nee­dle. Slip the loop from your thumb onto the nee­dle and pull to tighten.

De­crease (dec)

Knit 2 To­gether (k2­tog) In­sert the right nee­dle through the next two stitches on the left nee­dle as if to knit. Knit these two stitches to­gether as one. Purl 2 To­gether (p2­tog) In­sert the right nee­dle through the next two stitches on the left nee­dle as if to purl. Purl these two stitches to­gether as one. Slip, Slip, Knit (ssk) Slip the next two stitches, one at a time, from the left nee­dle to the right nee­dle as if to knit.

In­sert the left nee­dle through both slipped stitches in front of the right nee­dle.

Knit these two stitches to­gether. Slip, Slip, Purl (ssp) Slip the next two stitches, one at a time, from the left nee­dle to the right nee­dle as if to knit.

Slip these stitches back to the left nee­dle keep­ing them twisted.

Purl these two stitches to­gether through their back loops.

Ba­sic Stitches

Garter Stitch When work­ing back and forth in rows, knit ev­ery row. When work­ing in the round, knit one round, then purl one round. Stock­inette Stitch When work­ing back and forth in rows, knit right-side rows and purl wrong­side rows. When work­ing in the round, knit all rounds. Re­verse Stock­inette Stitch When work­ing back and forth in rows, purl right-side rows and knit wrong­side rows. When work­ing in the round, purl all rounds. Rib­bing Rib­bing com­bines knit and purl stitches within a row to give stretch to the gar­ment. Rib­bing is most often used for the lower edge of the front and back, the cuffs and neck edge of gar­ments.

The rib pat­tern is es­tab­lished on the first row. On sub­se­quent rows, the knit stitches are knit­ted and purl stitches are purled to form the ribs.

Gauge

The sin­gle most im­por­tant fac­tor in de­ter­min­ing the fin­ished size of a knit item is the gauge. Al­though not as im­por­tant for flat, one-piece items, it is im­por­tant when mak­ing a cloth­ing item that needs to fit prop­erly.

Be­fore be­gin­ning, it is im­por­tant to make a gauge swatch about 6 inches square us­ing the rec­om­mended stitch pat­tern(s) and nee­dles. If the project that you are mak­ing will be worked in the round, work your gauge swatch in the round as well. Wash and block the swatch.

When the blocked swatch is dry, count the num­ber of stitches and rows in the cen­ter 4 inches. If there are fewer stitches and/or rows than in­di­cated in the Gauge sec­tion in the pat­tern, your nee­dles are too large. Try an­other swatch with smaller nee­dles. If there are more stitches and/or rows than in­di­cated in the Gauge sec­tion in the pat­tern, your nee­dles are too small. Try an­other swatch with larger nee­dles.

Con­tinue to ad­just nee­dles un­til cor­rect gauge is achieved.

Read­ing Pat­tern In­struc­tions

Be­fore be­gin­ning a pat­tern, look through it to make sure you are fa­mil­iar with the abbreviations and tech­niques that are used.

Some pat­terns may be writ­ten for more than one size. In this case the small­est size is given first and oth­ers are placed in paren­the­ses. When only one num­ber is given, it ap­plies to all sizes.

You may wish to high­light the num­bers for the size you are mak­ing be­fore be­gin­ning. It is also help­ful to place a self­stick­ing note on the pat­tern to mark any changes made while work­ing the pat­tern.

Mea­sur­ing

To mea­sure a piece, lay it flat on a smooth sur­face. Take the mea­sure­ment in the mid­dle of the piece. For ex­am­ple, mea­sure the length to the arm­hole in the cen­ter of the front or back piece, not along the outer edge where the edges tend to curve or roll.

Work­ing From Charts

A chart will often be pro­vided as a vis­ual rep­re­sen­ta­tion of a color or stitch pat­tern. On the chart each cell rep­re­sents one stitch. A key is given in­di­cat­ing the color or stitch rep­re­sented by each color or sym­bol in the cell.

The row num­ber is at the edge of the chart where that row be­gins. If the num­ber is at the right, the row is a right-side row and the chart row is read from right to left; if the num­ber is at the left, the row is a wrong-side row and the chart row is read from left to right.

When work­ing in rounds, ev­ery row on the chart is a right-side row and is read from right to left.

Use of Zero

In pat­terns that in­clude var­i­ous sizes, ze­ros are some­times nec­es­sary. For ex­am­ple, k0 (0, 1) means if you are mak­ing the small­est or mid­dle size, you would do noth­ing, and if you are mak­ing the largest size, you would k1.

Glos­sary

bind-off— used to fin­ish an edge cast-on— process of mak­ing foun­da­tion stitches used in knit­ting de­crease— means of re­duc­ing the num­ber of stitches in a row in­crease— means of adding to the num­ber of stitches in a row in­tar­sia— method of knit­ting a mul­ti­col­ored pat­tern into the fab­ric us­ing mul­ti­ple sep­a­rate yarn sources knit­wise— in­sert nee­dle into stitch as if to knit make 1— method of in­creas­ing us­ing the strand be­tween the last stitch worked and the next stitch place marker— place a pur­chased marker or loop of contrasting yarn onto the nee­dle or into the fab­ric to fa­cil­i­tate work­ing a pat­tern stitch or keep track of shap­ing purl­wise— in­sert nee­dle into stitch as if to purl right side— pub­lic side of gar­ment or piece sel­vage stitch— edge stitch used to make seam­ing eas­ier slip stitch— an un­worked stitch slipped from left nee­dle to right nee­dle, usu­ally as if to purl wrong side— pri­vate side of gar­ment or piece work even— con­tinue to work in the pat­tern as es­tab­lished with­out work­ing any in­creases or de­creases work in pat­tern as es­tab­lished— con­tinue to work fol­low­ing the pat­tern stitch as it has been set up or es­tab­lished on the nee­dle, work­ing any in­creases or de­creases in such a way that the es­tab­lished pat­tern re­mains the same yarn over— method of in­creas­ing by wrap­ping the yarn over the right nee­dle with­out work­ing a stitch

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