To­day in His­tory

El Dorado News-Times - - Morning Brew - To­day is Mon­day, July 31, the 212th day of 2017. There are 153 days left in the year.

To­day's High­light in His­tory: On July 31, 1777, dur­ing the Rev­o­lu­tion­ary War, the Mar­quis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French noble­man, was made a ma­jor-gen­eral in the Amer­i­can Con­ti­nen­tal Army.

On this date:

In 1556, St. Ig­natius of Loy­ola, founder of the So­ci­ety of Je­sus, died in Rome.

In 1875, the 17th pres­i­dent of the United States, An­drew John­son, died in Carter County, Ten­nessee, at age 66.

In 1919, Ger­many's Weimar (VY'mahr) Con­sti­tu­tion was adopted by the repub­lic's Na­tional Assem­bly.

In 1930, the ra­dio char­ac­ter "The Shadow" made his de­but as nar­ra­tor of the "De­tec­tive Story Hour" on CBS Ra­dio.

In 1942, Ox­fam In­ter­na­tional had its be­gin­nings as the Ox­ford Com­mit­tee for Famine Re­lief was founded in Eng­land.

In 1954, Pak­istan's K2 was con­quered as two mem­bers of an Ital­ian ex­pe­di­tion, Achille Com­pagnoni (ah-KEE'-lay kohm-pahn-YOH'-nee) and Lino Lacedelli (LEE'-noh lah-chee-DEHL'-ee), reached the sum­mit.

In 1957, the Dis­tant Early Warn­ing Line, a sys­tem of radar sta­tions de­signed to de­tect Soviet bombers ap­proach­ing North Amer­ica, went into op­er­a­tion.

In 1964, the Amer­i­can space probe Ranger 7 reached the moon, trans­mit­ting pic­tures back to Earth be­fore im­pact­ing the lu­nar sur­face.

In 1972, Demo­cratic vice-pres­i­den­tial can­di­date Thomas Ea­gle­ton with­drew from the ticket with Ge­orge McGovern fol­low­ing dis­clo­sures that Ea­gle­ton had once un­der­gone psy­chi­atric treat­ment.

In 1989, a pro-Ira­nian group in Le­banon re­leased a grisly video­tape show­ing the body of Amer­i­can hostage Wil­liam R. Hig­gins, a Marine lieu­tenant-colonel, dan­gling from a rope.

In 1991, Pres­i­dent Ge­orge H.W. Bush and Soviet Pres­i­dent Mikhail S. Gor­bachev signed the Strate­gic Arms Re­duc­tion Treaty in Mos­cow.

In 1992, the for­mer Soviet repub­lic of Ge­or­gia was ad­mit­ted to the United Na­tions as its 179th mem­ber. Thai Air­ways Flight 311, an Air­bus A310, crashed while ap­proach­ing Trib­hu­van In­ter­na­tional Air­port in Nepal; all 113 peo­ple aboard died.

Ten years ago: The Army cen­sured re­tired three-star Lt. Gen. Philip Kensinger for a "per­fect storm of mis­takes, mis­judg­ments and a fail­ure of lead­er­ship" af­ter the 2004 friendly-fire death in Afghanistan of Army Ranger Pat Till­man. The U.N. Se­cu­rity Coun­cil unan­i­mously ap­proved a 26,000-strong peace­keep­ing force for Su­dan's Dar­fur re­gion.

Five years ago: Three In­dian elec­tric grids col­lapsed in a cas­cade, cut­ting power to 620 mil­lion peo­ple in the world's big­gest black­out. Wrap­ping up an over­seas trip, Repub­li­can pres­i­den­tial con­tender Mitt Rom­ney said in War­saw that Poland's econ­omy was a model of small gov­ern­ment and free en­ter­prise that other na­tions should em­u­late. At the Lon­don games, the team of Gabrielle Dou­glas, McKayla Maroney, Aly Rais­man (AL'-ee RAYS'-mihn), Kyla Ross and Jor­dyn Wieber won the first U.S. Olympic team ti­tle in women's gym­nas­tics since 1996. Michael Phelps broke the Olympic medals record with his 19th as the United States romped to a dom­i­nat­ing win in the 4x200-me­ter freestyle re­lay. Au­thor, play­wright, politi­cian and com­men­ta­tor Gore Vi­dal, 86, died in Los An­ge­les.

One year ago: Pope Fran­cis told young peo­ple who had flocked by the hun­dreds of thou­sands to a Catholic jam­boree near Krakow, Poland, that they needed to "be­lieve in a new hu­man­ity" stronger than evil, and cau­tioned against con­clud­ing that one re­li­gion is more vi­o­lent than oth­ers. Ariya Ju­tanu­garn (ahr-EE'-uh juhTAN'-uh-garn) won the Women's Bri­tish Open at Woburn for her first ma­jor cham­pi­onship and fourth LPGA Tour vic­tory of the year.

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