Words followed by this symbol 0 are defined here
anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis)---acute, massive, often fatal allergic reaction triggered by the introduction of an antigen into a horse who already has become hypersensitized to that antigen.
ataxia--- incoordination of the muscles, which results in shaky, irregular movements; may also be accompanied by weakness and loss of proprioception.
body condition score (BCS)---a designation, based on a nine-point numeric scale, indicating the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is assigned after a visual and hands-on appraisal.
corticosteroids--- analogs of the hormone cortisol produced primarily by the adrenal glands; they may be natural or synthetically produced for injection. dopamine--- one of the neurotransmitters, chemical “messengers” that aid in transmitting nerve impulses across synapses between nerve cells.
equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)--endocrine disorder characterized by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulating in the bloodstream; and a predisposition toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes.
flunixin meglumine--- generic name for a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pain reliever commonly given for colic, eye pain or generalized body discomfort.
heaves--- common term for recurrent airway obstruction, a respiratory disease, usually of older horses, induced by exposure to dusts typically found in stables and resulting in narrowing of the small airways of the lungs.
hyoid apparatus-- set of bones that form a “swing” shape below the back of the skull, between the jawbones. The apparatus supports the larynx, pharynx and the base of the tongue.
insulin resistance--- metabolic disorder, similar to type 2 diabetes, that occurs when certain cells in the body become less sensitive to the action of insulin, and normal amounts of the hormone can no longer keep adequate amounts of glucose moving into the cells for use as fuel.
laminitis--- inflammation of the sensitive plates of soft tissue (laminae) within the horse’s foot caused by physical or physiologic injury. Severe cases of laminitis may result in founder, an internal deformity of the foot. Acute laminitis sets in rapidly and usually responds to appropriate, intensive treatment, while chronic laminitis is a persistent, long-term condition that may be unresponsive to treatment.
nasogastric intubation (“tubing”)---a process in which a flexible plastic tube is passed through a horse’s nose, into his esophagus and down to his stomach to check for gastric reflux and/or deliver fluids. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling.
nucleotide--- any of several compounds that comprise the basic structural units of DNA (protein chains in the cell nuclei which determine hereditary characteristics) and RNA (various nucleic acids associated with the control of cellular functions).
phenylbutazone (“bute”)---generic name for an odorless anti-inflammatory medication used in the management of joint, bone and muscle injuries or disorders.
pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, Cushing’s disease)---disease caused when the cortex of the adrenal gland produces excessive amounts of hormones, including cortisol; signs include persistent long hair, thin skin, fragile bones, stupor, weakness and sweating.
sand colic--- abdominal pain resulting from an accumulation of sand in the large intestine.
thrush--- hoof disease characterized by degeneration of the frog and a thick, foulsmelling discharge.
West Nile virus--- flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. West Nile virus can infect birds, horses, humans and other mammals. In horses, as in people, infection with the virus usually causes little or no illness. For reasons not yet determined, however, West Nile infection sometimes triggers swelling of the brain (encephalitis) that produces limb weakness, muscle fasciculation (twitching), incoordination, behavioral changes, paralysis and recumbency. In severe cases, West Nile encephalitis can lead to coma and death.
white line--- zone on the bottom of the horse’s hoof where the insensitive laminae and the interlaminar horn attach the wall to the margin of the sole.