GLOSSARY

EQUUS - - Equus -

Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol 0 are de­fined here

ana­phy­lac­tic shock (ana­phy­laxis)---acute, mas­sive, of­ten fa­tal al­ler­gic re­ac­tion trig­gered by the in­tro­duc­tion of an anti­gen into a horse who al­ready has be­come hy­per­sen­si­tized to that anti­gen.

ataxia--- in­co­or­di­na­tion of the mus­cles, which re­sults in shaky, ir­reg­u­lar move­ments; may also be ac­com­pa­nied by weak­ness and loss of pro­pri­o­cep­tion.

body con­di­tion score (BCS)---a des­ig­na­tion, based on a nine-point nu­meric scale, in­di­cat­ing the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is as­signed af­ter a vis­ual and hands-on ap­praisal.

cor­ti­cos­teroids--- analogs of the hor­mone cor­ti­sol pro­duced pri­mar­ily by the adrenal glands; they may be nat­u­ral or syn­thet­i­cally pro­duced for in­jec­tion. dopamine--- one of the neu­ro­trans­mit­ters, chem­i­cal “mes­sen­gers” that aid in trans­mit­ting nerve im­pulses across synapses be­tween nerve cells.

equine meta­bolic syn­drome (EMS)--en­docrine dis­or­der char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor­mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood­stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes.

flu­nixin meg­lu­mine--- generic name for a non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory pain re­liever com­monly given for colic, eye pain or gen­er­al­ized body dis­com­fort.

heaves--- com­mon term for re­cur­rent air­way ob­struc­tion, a res­pi­ra­tory dis­ease, usu­ally of older horses, in­duced by ex­po­sure to dusts typ­i­cally found in sta­bles and re­sult­ing in nar­row­ing of the small air­ways of the lungs.

hy­oid ap­pa­ra­tus-- set of bones that form a “swing” shape be­low the back of the skull, be­tween the jaw­bones. The ap­pa­ra­tus sup­ports the lar­ynx, phar­ynx and the base of the tongue.

in­sulin re­sis­tance--- meta­bolic dis­or­der, sim­i­lar to type 2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glu­cose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel.

lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment.

na­so­gas­tric in­tu­ba­tion (“tub­ing”)---a process in which a flex­i­ble plas­tic tube is passed through a horse’s nose, into his esoph­a­gus and down to his stom­ach to check for gas­tric re­flux and/or de­liver flu­ids. non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory drug (NSAID)---drug that con­tains no steroids and acts to re­duce heat and swelling.

nu­cleo­tide--- any of sev­eral com­pounds that com­prise the ba­sic struc­tural units of DNA (pro­tein chains in the cell nu­clei which de­ter­mine hered­i­tary char­ac­ter­is­tics) and RNA (var­i­ous nu­cleic acids as­so­ci­ated with the con­trol of cel­lu­lar func­tions).

phenylbu­ta­zone (“bute”)---generic name for an odor­less anti-in­flam­ma­tory med­i­ca­tion used in the man­age­ment of joint, bone and mus­cle in­juries or dis­or­ders.

pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion (PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing.

sand colic--- ab­dom­i­nal pain re­sult­ing from an ac­cu­mu­la­tion of sand in the large in­tes­tine.

thrush--- hoof dis­ease char­ac­ter­ized by de­gen­er­a­tion of the frog and a thick, foulsmelling dis­charge.

West Nile virus--- fla­vivirus trans­mit­ted by mosquitoes. West Nile virus can in­fect birds, horses, hu­mans and other mam­mals. In horses, as in peo­ple, in­fec­tion with the virus usu­ally causes lit­tle or no ill­ness. For rea­sons not yet de­ter­mined, how­ever, West Nile in­fec­tion some­times trig­gers swelling of the brain (encephalitis) that pro­duces limb weak­ness, mus­cle fas­ci­c­u­la­tion (twitch­ing), in­co­or­di­na­tion, be­hav­ioral changes, paral­y­sis and re­cum­bency. In se­vere cases, West Nile encephalitis can lead to coma and death.

white line--- zone on the bot­tom of the horse’s hoof where the in­sen­si­tive lam­i­nae and the in­ter­lam­i­nar horn at­tach the wall to the mar­gin of the sole.

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