Words followed by this symbol 0 are defined here
amino acids--- organic building blocks that together make up proteins and into which proteins can be broken down. “Essential amino acid” content determines the quality of a protein. The sequence of amino acids in a protein, and hence protein function, are determined by the genetic code. arthroscopy--- examination of the interior of a joint through a slender fiber-optic instrument. Used primarily in joint surgery, arthroscopy has rendered many more invasive techniques obsolete. body condition score (BCS)---a designation, based on a nine-point numeric scale, indicating the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is assigned after a visual and hands-on appraisal. carbohydrates--- large group of carbon-based compounds, including starches, sugars and cellulose, that are found in plants and form the largest class of animal foods. Carbohydrates, together with proteins and lipids, are principal components of cell protoplasm, the viscous fluid that fills plant and animal cells. chondroitin sulfate--- a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, a large protein molecule that is a constituent of connective tissues and cartilage; a common ingredient in many joint supplements. conjunctivitis--- inflammation of the conjunctiva, the membrane lining the inside of the eyelid and covering the exposed surface (“white”) of the eyeball around the cornea. cornea--- transparent membrane forming the front part of the eyeball. Light passes through the cornea to the lens. developmental orthopedic disease--- a general term used to describe all skeletal conditions associated with growth and development in foals, including osteochondrosis, acquired angular limb deformities, subchondral bone cysts, physitis, flexural deformities, vertebral deformities, and deformities of the small bones of the hock and knees. equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)--endocrine disorder characterized by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulating in the bloodstream; and a predisposition toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes. fat-soluble vitamins--- vitamins A, D, E and K, which are available from plant oils and fats. fatty acids--- group of complex organic chemicals that are the building blocks of fat. granulation--- formation of new cells from the capillaries in the base of a wound to fill the wound gap. ingesta--- the partially digested contents of the intestinal tract; the foodstuff eaten. larynx (voice box)---organ that functions to keep unwanted substances out of the airway and to produce voice. Centered just at the back of the lower jawbone, the larynx is equivalent to the human “Adam’s apple.” lipids--- several non-water-soluble, fatty substances that, together with protein and carbohydrates, compose the structural material of cells; may serve as a fuel source in the body. metabolism--- the sum of chemical processes within the body that transform incoming raw nutrients into protoplasm or consume them in functional activities, eventually breaking down the nutrients into waste products. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling. pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, Cushing’s disease)---disease caused when the cortex of the adrenal gland produces excessive amounts of hormones, including cortisol; signs include persistent long hair, thin skin, fragile bones, stupor, weakness and sweating.
protein--- large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order. Proteins are required for the structure, function and regulation of the body’s cells, tissues and organs, and each protein has unique functions. Simple proteins consist only of amino acids. Conjugated proteins consist of amino acids joined to other complex molecules. Derived proteins are the products of chemical changes to other proteins. proud flesh--- excess granulation tissue rising out of and above the edges of a wound, forming a raw, exposed mound that makes further healing delayed or impossible without medication or surgery. water-soluble vitamin--- vitamin stored in cells and dissolved in body fluids. Vitamin C and the B-complex vitamins are water soluble.