THE ORIGINAL POLICE PATROL RIFLE
The Winchester Model 1907 .351 WSL offered near-.30-30 performance in a low-recoil semiautomatic carbine, making it the most used police rifle in the 1920s and ’30s gangster era.
“The Gun That Shoots Through Steel.”
That is how Winchester introduced its Model 1907 rifle chambered in .351 Winchester Self Loader (WSL). In the wake of the gangsterera Kansas City Massacre, when four law enforcement officers were killed, the police across the nation upgraded their firearms. As a result, the Winchester Model 1907 became America’s first police patrol rifle.
The Winchester Model 1907 is a blowback-operated semiautomatic rifle produced between 1907 and 1958. Winchester designed the Model 1907 to be a carbine-length rifle with a magazine large enough for law enforcement. The rifle was simple, reliable and quick-handling, with fast follow-up shots. The Model 1907 in .351 WSL was the most widely used law enforcement rifle during the gangster eras of the Roaring ’20s and the Wild ’30s.
THE KANSAS CITY MASSACRE
The 1933 Kansas City Massacre was the ambush and murder of four federal and local law enforcement officers. A fugitive in the custody of these officers was also killed. The shootout prompted a nationwide upgrade in police firearms.
This ambush took place in the parking lot of the Union Station rail depot in Kansas City, Missouri. It was an attempt by the Vernon Miller gang to either free Frank Nash, a federal prisoner, or it was an act to kill him to prevent him from testifying. He, as well as the seven officers escorting him, came under fire from three or four gunmen, some armed with machine guns, in an ambush lasting about 30 seconds.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover reacted quickly; first, to get his agents properly armed, and second, to arm them with powerful weapons. (Prior to this massacre, FBI agents did not have the authority to carry firearms federally [state to state]
and had to obtain permits and licenses in accordance with local laws and each individual state. In May 1934, Congress expanded the FBI’s authority to carry firearms nationwide.)
The first weapons authorized for carry by the FBI were the Thompson .45 Auto submachinegun, the Springfield and Remington .30-06 bolt-action rifles, and the Winchester Model 1907 .351 WSL self-loading rifle. This act by the FBI made the Model 1907 America’s first true police patrol rifle. The Winchester Model 1907 immediately gained popularity with the police across the United States as they also upgraded their firearms during the Depression era of violent gangster activities.
Although the FBI later adopted the Remington 81 in .35 Remington, the Winchester Model 1907 became the police patrol rifle-of-choice for most county, and especially state, police officers. The .351 WSL had the ideal combination of stopping power, car body penetration and controllable recoil for rapid follow-up shots.
It was such a popular and widely used patrol rifle that it would have been rare for the police in any of the 50 states not to have used one at some point during its heyday in the period between the 1930s and the 1960s. Some police departments still used them and had them in their arsenals until the mid-1980s.
It was also used in the federal prison system and state prisons throughout the nation. It had ample power for police and guard duty without the disadvantage of extreme range and heavy recoil found in some of the more-powerful rifle calibers. In these prison roles, the .351 Winchester remained the rifle-ofchoice until it was replaced in the 1980s by the Ruger Mini 14.
DELAYED BLOWBACK ACTION
The Model 1907 uses a delayed blowback action—meaning that it fires from an unlocked breech. The blowback bolt is connected to a 2.5-pound breechblock that cycles back and forth under the rifle’s hollow forearm. The combination of a strong boltspring and the weight of the bolt and breechblock
THINK OF THE .351
WSL AS A REDUCEDRECOIL .30-30. THE MODEL 1907 IS A TRUE DEER RIFLE THAT “SHOOTS THROUGH STEEL.” NO WONDER IT DOMINATED LAW ENFORCEMENT DURING THE GANGSTER ERA …
slows the bullet’s recoil impulse enough so that a locked breech is not necessary. That means no gas tubes, no pistons, and no rotating bolts or locking lugs.
The breech remains completely closed by the force of the boltspring and inertia of the breechblock until the bullet exits the barrel. Then, the recoil of the fired round forces the bolt back far enough to eject the empty case, strip a loaded round from the magazine and chamber it.
The Model 1907 is fed from a detachable box magazine. The hunting and police versions used five- and 10-round magazines, while the military version used 15- and 20-round magazines.
The Model 1907 had familiar ergonomics for weapons of the time. For either a right- or left-handed shooter, the support hand simply pulled back on the cocking lever to chamber a round. This is the same motion of their support hand to pump a slide-action shotgun.
PRE- AND POST-WAR MODELS
The Winchester Model 1907 came in two versions: pre- and post-World War II models. About 30,000 rifles of the Model 1907s are pre-war (1907–1942), and about 28,500 rifles are post-war (1948–1958). For the post-war versions, the Model 1907 moniker was shortened to “Model 07.” The biggest improvement with the post-war rifles was the use of thicker wood for the forearm and buttstock. The prewar forearm was very thin. The reciprocating breechblock beat against the wood to the point at which about two-thirds of the pre-war rifles have cracked forearms. Likewise, the slim buttstock would crack where it met the receiver. The post-war upgrades to the Model 07 buttstock and forearm totally solved those issues.
Another improvement, especially for law enforcement officers who change magazines under stress, was a bigger magazine thumb release. The wider, longer and knurled post-war release replaced the smaller and smoother pre-war version. This was an important change, because the magazines are a tight, almost gunsmithed, fit. It takes some force and precision to remove
them, and it starts by proper pressure on the mag release.
A third big improvement was an upgrade to the operating rod tip. The pre-war Model 1907 used a coin-like circular cap on the end of the op rod. The post-war Model 07 got an aggressively curved, hooked cap on the end of the op rod. Under stress, it is easier to grab the post-war curved hook to chamber a round.
Minor changes included a swap from a Winchester embossed plastic buttplate to a more-durable, heavily checkered steel buttplate. The detent holding the takedown screw was eliminated. Sling swivels inletted into both the buttstock and forearm were added.
MILITARY MODEL 1907/17
The Model 1907 came in many models during its 51 years of production. The Plain Model was the base, hunting grade rifle. The Deluxe Model used a higher grade of marbled walnut stock and had heavy checkering on the forearm and pistol grip area. A limited number of Prince of Wales grip (English straight stock) rifles were also produced.
In 1917, Winchester produced a military-only version called the Military Model 1907/17. The fully automatic Model 1907/17 fired at a rate of 650 rounds per minute and came with 15- or 20-round magazines.
THE MODEL 1907 USES A DELAYED BLOWBACK ACTION—MEANING THAT IT FIRES FROM AN UNLOCKED BREECH.
The Military Model rifle used a larger-diameter barrel without a front sight. The bull barrel accepted a sleeve with an integrated lower bayonet lug and upper front sight. The sleeve slid over the sightless muzzle and was held in place with two screws. The lug was designed to accept the bayonet from the Model 1896 Krag-Jorgenson bolt-action rifle.
POLICE MODEL OF 1935
In 1935, Winchester used some of the leftover Military Model components for a short run of the Police Model. An extremely rare rifle, the Police Model was dropped from the Winchester lineup in 1937 because so few were sold.
The post-war Model 07 Police Model used the same large-diameter bull barrel as the Military Model 1907/17 and used the same bayonet lug-front sight sleeve. In fact, the Police Model allowed Winchester to use up parts left over from the French military contract, which was canceled in 1918 when World War I ended.
The Police Model came with one five- and one 10-shot magazine. The Police Model rear sight was a simple V-groove plate drifted into a dovetail that was machined 23/8 inches farther to the rear of the fully adjustable Plain Model. The Police Model, like the Military Model, was not adjustable for elevation but was drift adjustable for windage. The Police Model came with an M1907 leather sling virtually identical to the M1 Garand-type used by the military. Otherwise, the Police Model was simply a modified pre-war Model 1907.
The Winchester Model 1907 (Model 07) became America’s first widely used police patrol rifle. The “gun that shoots through steel” had enough power to get inside cars with the fastest follow-up shots of any high-powered rifle of the era.
The Winchester Model 1907 (Model 07) was widely used in frontline service by federal, state and local law enforcement from the 1930s to the 1960s. It was still on active duty in some correctional facilities until it was replaced by the Ruger Mini 14 in the mid-1980s. The rise in crime during the Roaring ’20s and Wild ’30s—including
ambushes of police officers—resulted in a nationwide upgrading of firearms. The .351 WSL has most of the energy of the .30-30 Win. with the follow-up shot time as fast as the
.30 M1 Carbine.
The Winchester Model 1907 (Model 07) was put to work by the FBI against the Karpis and Barker gangs. This rifle was at the Bonnie and Clyde shootout, during which the Browning Automatic Rifle (B.A.R.) in .30-06 did all the heavy lifting. The Winchester
Model 1907 is a blowback-operated, semiautomatic rifle firing the .35-caliber .351 WSL cartridge. The Winchester Self-Loading Rifles were the first successful centerfire rifles ever sold. Once available only at gun shows, new brass ammo for the .351 WSL is now readily available in (left to right) roundnose lead, full metal jacket and jacketed
Following the Kansas City Massacre, the FBI authorized a number of high-powered weapons, starting with the Winchester Model 1907 (bottom), shown here with the Winchester Model 12 shotgun. Both are on display at the Indiana State Police Museum. A major improvement of the post-war Model 07 rifles is this wider, longer and knurled magazine release. Most Model 07 rifles came with a factory-fitted, flush-mounted, fiveshot magazine.
I A major improvement of the post-war Model 07 rifles is the addition of this hooked operating rod tip, which replaced the coin-like circular cap. Under stress, the hook rod was easier to cycle. The Model 07 had familiar ergonomics for the era. To chamber a round, the shooter would pull the operating rod back and release it—the same motion as the slide action on a pump shotgun.