A different kind of gender disparity,
Call it male fraud.
A new study in the online academic journal mBio reports that male college faculty members were responsible for 88% of documented cases of research misconduct in biology studies by university professors, upending expectations that women would make up a quarter of the cases based on workforce demographics.
The study, “Males are overrepresented among life science researchers committing scientific misconduct,” examined 215 cases of fraud in scientific papers reported by the U.S. Office of Research
Integrity between 1994 and 2012. The statistics examined misconduct by several types of researchers, from professors to postdoc fellows to students—and found men were overrepresented in each category.
But the gender disparity was greatest among cheating college professors, of whom only nine were female and 63 were male.
Senior study author Dr. Arturo Casadevall, a professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine at Yeshiva University and editor-in-chief of mBio, in a news release aired some speculation about his theories for the reported male dominance.
“As research has shown, males tend to be risk-takers, more so than females, and to commit fraud entails taking a risk,” he says. “It may also be that males are more competitive, or that women are more sensitive to the threat of sanctions. I think the best answer is that we don’t know.”
Casadevall suggested the need for more research to understand the gender difference in an “effort to promote the integrity of research.”
Hey, if a research study can help plumb the mysterious divide between the sexes, Outliers is all for it.
Pizza purveyors wage their own ACA fight
Outliers will admit to loving pizza, but we’ve always felt a bit guilty wondering just how many calories those cheesy slices contain.
Now an industry-funded coalition is hoping to keep those calorie counts under the counter. Politico reports that “an old-fashioned political food fight” is under way in the Beltway with pizza makers arguing that a provision in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requiring chain restaurants to provide calorie counts shouldn’t apply to pizza.
According to the group—with the amiable name of the American Pizza Community—there are apparently 34 million ways to order a pizza, making advanced disclosure of an individual pizza’s calorie count somewhat more difficult than the simpler burger-and-fries combo. The group is lobbying for a change in requirements that would instead mandate calorie counts for a slice rather than a whole pizza and average totals rather than specific calorie counts. Consumer groups disagree. “They want a huge exemption for pizza,” Margo Wootan, director of nutrition policy at the Center for Science in the Public Interest, told Politico. “They want to define what a serving size is themselves so they can finagle the calorie counts.”
We’ll take a thin crust with mushrooms and green peppers, please.
“HIPAA has made it far too difficult to surface potentially dangerous people. ... HIPAA clearly went too far. The question is, if you have information and you have a reason to believe this person is dangerous, should there be a way to surface that?”
—Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich on ABCnews.com
“Her family refused (to let the patient go home), and they told me so. Do I call security and escort them out? I was more concerned with them giving me a bad patient-satisfaction survey score than her going home and having a stroke,” which was considered highly unlikely.
—An emergency room doctor in Columbia, S.C., in Forbes
How many calories are in that slice? The possibilities seem to be endless, according to the pizza lobby.
Her research results may be more credible than his, according to a recent study of documented cases of research misconduct.