JOSEPH CALIFANO JR. helped launch Medicare and Medicaid as President Johnson’s chief domestic policy aide from 1965 to 1969. Later, as Health, Education and Welfare secretary under PRESIDENT JIMMY CARTER, he consolidated oversight of the two programs under the new Health Care Financing Administration (which became the CMS in 2001).
ROBERT FETTER and JOHN THOMPSON of Yale University, starting in 1967, developed the diagnosis-related group system, classifying medical conditions and treatments into bundled categories. It was used for the Medicare prospective payment system implemented in 1983.
PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON signed legislation in 1972 extending Medicare to people receiving Social Security disability payments and to people under age 65 with end-stage renal disease.
PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN signed legislation setting per-diem limits on Medicare hospital payments, paving the way for DRGs.
WILLIAM HSAIO of Harvard University published studies of resource-based relative values for medical services that were used in developing Medicare’s reformed physician payment system implemented in 1992.
CAROLYNE DAVIS, HCFA administrator from 1981 to 1985, led the rollout of the hospital prospective payment system.
BRUCE VLADECK, HCFA administrator from 1993 to 1997, oversaw the introduction of Medicaid’s Section 1115 waiver program, expansion of the prospective payment system, and early experimentation with Medicare HMOs.
REP. HENRY WAXMAN (D-Calif.) was a major architect of Medicaid expansion from the mid-1980s through the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010.
PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH championed and signed into law in 2003 the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit program.
TOM SCULLY, CMS administrator under President Bush, helped design and implement the Medicare Part D program.