:open VWLOO VWRLVLNJ Wo EREDN ‘JODVV FELOLNJ’ Ln Whe WORNSODFE
For millions of years since the firVW HoPo VDSLenV wDONeG on Earth, men of our species decided that women would cook the venison and raise the children while men hunted. In modern times, the Pen EeFoPe Whe C(2V oI PDMor companies while their wives heat the food in the microwave and, of course, raise the children.
7hLV GLvLVLon oI ODEor EeJDn Wo FhDnJe Ln 1964 when Whe UnLWeG 6WDWeV CLvLO 5LJhWV AFW SrevenWeG discrimination in employment EDVeG on Vex, rDFe, reOLJLon or FoOor oI one’V VNLn. 2n MDrFh 24, 1986, the Wall Street Journal described a new WerP: 7he “JODVV FeLOLnJ.” ,W Gescribed how women and minorities were uS DJDLnVW Dn LnvLVLEOe JODVV FeLOLnJ WhDW hDG Wo Ee SeneWrDWeG.
After millions of years, women were EeLnJ reFoJnLzeG DnG JLven the respect to which they were enWLWOeG. 7hey FouOG Go Pore WhDn MuVW cook and raise the kids. Finally, women were permitted to further their education and partake in the workforce. Women and minorities PDNe uS Wwo-WhLrGV oI Whe SoSuODtion and 57 percent of Whe worNIorFe. BuW LW’V D slow path for a woman to become a CEO or have D WoS PDnDJePenW SoVLtion.
Women make up only 26 SerFenW oI VWDWe MuGJeV and their income is only 74 SerFenW oI WhDW oI PDOe lawyers. They have an eDrnLnJ JDS WhDW LV 23 percent less than men alWhouJh neDrOy one-hDOI oI reFenW ODw VFhooO JrDGuates are women.
Ninety percent of female lawyers hDve VuIIereG VexuDO GLVFrLPLnDWLon. ,n Whe PeGLFDO SroIeVVLon, WwoWhLrGV Dre woPen. However, IePDOe GoFWorV eDrn 18 SerFenW OeVV WhDn male doctors.
AFForGLnJ Wo VWDWLVWLFV, PDOe Srofessors of medicine outnumber fe- PDOe SroIeVVorV oI PeGLFLne, 5-1.
7he JODVV FeLOLnJ oI 1986 ErouJhW to the attention of America that TuDOLfieG woPen were EeLnJ GenLeG hLJher SoVLtions on the corporate ladGer DnG GLG noW JeW eTuDO pay for similar types of work. Women with M.B.A. GeJreeV IroP business schools receive VDODrLeV WhDW Dre $4,600 less than that paid to men. Across the pond, in most European countries, women occupy fewer WhDn one-Ln-10 WoS SoVLtions in science facilities.
A 2011 U.6. Jovernment report did show that as the yeDrV Jo Ey, woPen reFeLve hLJher VDODrLeV. DeVSLWe Whe JDLnV, woPen still have a median weekly income WhDW LV 70.5 SerFenW WhDW oI Pen and earn 75 percent of what a man wouOG eDrn DW Whe VDPe MoE. AnG woPen hoOG onOy 16 SerFenW oI Whe WoS exeFuWLve SoVLWLonV Ln APerLFD’V ODrJeVW ForSorDWLonV DnG enWerprises because they usually have to DFFeSW Oower SDyLnJ worN. 7he JDS between women and men reveals WhDW woPen who Dre IuOO-WLPe ePSOoyeeV PDNe 17 SerFenW OeVV WhDn Pen DnG WhDW LnFoPe JDS EeFoPeV ODrJer DW hLJher VDODrLeV. 7hLV oFFurV even WhouJh Whe SerFenWDJe oI DOO DGuOW woPen who Dre worNLnJ hDV LnFreDVeG IroP 33 SerFenW Ln 1950 Wo 61 SerFenW Ln 1999. :oPen ODJ EehLnG Pen Ln GeJreeV Ln PDWh, ShyVLFDO VFLenFeV, enJLneerLnJ DnG computer science.
The income difference between women and men is not new. In the 18Wh FenWury, woPen were EDVLFDOOy slaves in a home. They cleaned and cooked and were treated poorly by the man of the house even if he was a husband. This lifestyle was acFeSWeG DV norPDO. ,W wDV TuLWe evLGenW Ln Whe OLIe oI :LOOLDP HerVFheO who became a famous astronomer. He GLVFovereG Whe SODneW UrDnuV DnG FDWDOoJueG PDny VWDrV oI Whe heavens. William lived with his sisWer CDroOLne who EeFDPe D VLnJer and an astronomer and worshiped her brother. Caroline discovered nine comets and did the bookkeepLnJ DnG PDny oWher FhoreV Ior :LOOLDP. Her WerrLEOe OLIe wDV exSeFWeG and accepted by Caroline and other woPen Ln Whe 1700V.
The treatment of women over the centuries can be measured by their ODFN oI VuFFeVV unWLO Whe ODWe 19Wh FenWury. )roP Whe 1700V onwDrG, very Iew woPen were ouWVWDnGLnJ Ln VFLenFe DnG oWher fieOGV.
Marie Curie received two Nobel PrLzeV, one Ln 1903 DnG one Ln 1911. 7he one Ln 1903 Ln ShyVLFV wDV JLven on the insistence of her husband, Pierre. This seemed to show the worOG WhDW woPen FDn PDNe PDMor contributions as they do today.
In recent years, women have been FrDFNLnJ WhDW JODVV FeLOLnJ. UnIorWunately, it will still take many years unWLO WhDW FeLOLnJ LV Jone.
Health & Science Dr. Milton Friedman