African Megacity Makeovers Tackle Rising Populations
Nigeria’s largest, busiest and most congested city, Lagos, has long had a reputation for dynamism mixed with chaos. Its sprawling slums and ballooning population have for decades stretched governments’ ability to provide services.
The 2006 census placed the city’s population at close to 8 million, making it the most populous city in the country and the second-largest in Africa after Cairo. One forecast saw the population reaching 23 million by 2015. Lagos was called the fastest-growing city in Africa by Un-habitat (2008). The city is Nigeria’s economic and financial hub and critical to the country’s future.
According to a report by the International Institute for Environment and Development, Africa now has a larger urban population than North America and 25 of the world’s fastest-growing big cities. Coming to grips with urban development will be critical for the future of the continent and the well-being of its people.
In West Africa, an OECD study found that the area stretching along the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean had a network of 300 cities larger than 100,000 people and the greatest number of urban poor on the planet. It is a common problem across the South as fast-growing city populations surge past the ability of institutions and infrastructure to cope.
Hebel believes turning local would cut building costs by a third and save on costly imports
It is a development challenge that urgently needs solutions. In Lagos, the Oluwole district, formerly a crime-plagued slum, has been transformed into a new marketplace, and the plan is to follow this with new offices, homes and shops. The brainchild of the Lagos State Governor, Babatunde Fashola, redevelopment of the 20,000-square-metre site is part of his multi-stage plan to bring more order to the chaos thatisdailylifeinlagos.therearealsoambitiousplansafoot to build new roads and bridges. The area’s traffic congestion is also being targeted for solutions. The former slum is now rebranded as the Oluwole Urban Market and Multifunctional City Centre and is being redeveloped in partnership with the private sector. The redeveloped slum is part of the much larger Lagos Island Central Business District (CBD) Revitalization/ Marina City Project, a five-year project jointly executed by the Lagos government and private-sector players. This project has already begun with the redesigning and reconstruction of roads and infrastructure within the CBD and the adjoining axes.
Another fast-growing African city is Addis Ababa. The capital of the East African country of Ethiopia, it has been in the grips of a building boom for the past few years but much of this building has been unplanned and, to many, is ugly. The current building boom’s architectural legacy has been criticized for leaving buildings that are too hot for the climate and require expensive air conditioning systems. They also use imported cement and steel and are not earthquake-proof.
Addis Ababa was founded in 1886 by Emperor Menelik II. It is now host to the African Union and it is this important role that has architects advocating for a new approach to the city’s development.
Addis is home to some of the highest-density urban slums in the world, according to the UN. Some estimates place the population of the city at 4.6 million, and that could double by 2020. But its pattern is unusual for an African city. Dirk Hebel of Addis Ababa’s architecture
school told The Economist that it defies the usual pattern of rich centre and poor periphery. Instead, because crime is low and the rich seem to tolerate the poor living among them, the slums are jammed between office buildings and flats in the wealthy parts of the city. Architects favour smaller buildings that stay true to local stone and traditional guttering to collect the rain. Hebel believes turning local would cut building costs by a third and save on costly imports. The architecture school has received funding from a technical institute in Zurich, Switzerland, called ETH to help develop new ideas.
Hebel and ETH’S head, Marc Angelil, have written a book profiling the architectural styles of the city.
The city is plagued – like so many in the South – by pollution and traffic gridlock. Growth is projected to be so large by 2050 that the country would need 20 new cities of 5 million people each to accommodate it (UN). This is an epic challenge requiring imaginative thinking and new ways. – (November 2010)
A typical market in Lagos, Nigeria.
Lagos State Governor, Babatunde Fashola.
How the redeveloped market looks.
The architect’s vision for the new market in Lagos, Nigeria.