• The Oslo Manual for measuring innovation has defined four types of innovation: product innovation, process innovation, marketing innovation and organizational innovation. • Since 2005, six new science academies have been established in Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. This compares to nine established between 1902 and 2004. • The UNESCO Science Report 2010 found that Burkina Faso, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa had adopted laws to support biotechnology research. • The Innovation Prize for Africa, begun in 2011, awards US$100,000 for the top innovation that matches its criteria of marketability, originality, scalability, social impact and business potential.
Sources: UNESCO and OECD