To­day is Mon­day, July 31, 2017. This is the 212th day of 2017 and the 42nd day of sum­mer.

TO­DAY’S HIS­TORY: In 1914, trad­ing on the New York Stock Ex­change stopped in re­sponse to the out­break of World War I. It did not re­sume un­til De­cem­ber of that year.

In 1964, the Amer­i­can space probe Ranger 7 trans­mit­ted the first close-up pho­to­graphs of the moon.

In 1991, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the START 1 treaty, an agree­ment to re­duce both coun­tries’ nu­clear arms stock­piles.

In 2006, Cuban dic­ta­tor Fidel Cas­tro un­der­went surgery and trans­ferred pres­i­den­tial power to his brother Raul.

TO­DAY’S FACT: The first U.S. patent was is­sued to in­ven­tor Sa­muel Hop­kins on this day in 1790, for a process of mak­ing potash, an in­gre­di­ent used in fer­til­izer.

TO­DAY’S SPORTS: In 2012, Amer­i­can swim­mer Michael Phelps broke Soviet gym­nast Larisa Latyn­ina’s long-stand­ing ca­reer Olympic medal record, win­ning his 19th medal with a vic­tory in the 4-x-200 re­lay.

TO­DAY’S NUM­BER: 11.2 mil­lion — es­ti­mated pop­u­la­tion of Cuba in 2016.

TO­DAY’S BIRTH­DAYS: Mil­ton Fried­man (1912-2006), econ­o­mist; Primo Levi (1919-1987), chemist/au­thor; Ge­of­frey Lewis (1935-2015), ac­tor; Evonne Goolagong Caw­ley (1951-), ten­nis player; Michael Biehn (1956-), ac­tor; Mark Cuban (1958-), Dal­las Mav­er­icks owner; Wes­ley Snipes (1962-), ac­tor; J.K. Rowl­ing (1965-), au­thor; Zac Brown (1978-), mu­si­cian; B.J. No­vak (1979-), ac­tor; DeMar­cus Ware (1982-), foot­ball player; Char­lie Carver (1988-), ac­tor; A.J. Green (1988-), foot­ball player.

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