Better intel pays off for North . . . . 28
Historians maintain that Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia lost the Battle of Gettysburg in large part because of the lack of an effective intelligence-gathering capability. This was due to the separation of the cavalry under Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart during the campaign. What has received less attention is the extensive intelligence apparatus that the Union army had available to help it defeat the Rebel army. After the Army of the Potomac’s defeat at Chancellorsville in May 1863, Union Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker knew that he had little time to prepare for another engagement with Lee’s army. For this purpose, he needed to determine the strength, disposition and intentions of the enemy.