The Uni­ver­sal Dec­la­ra­tion of Hu­man Rights

Trillions - - From The Publisher -

All hu­mans are le­gally en­ti­tled to the ba­sic hu­man rights pro­claimed by the United Na­tions Gen­eral As­sem­bly in Paris on 10 De­cem­ber 1948. These rights were de­clared as a com­mon stan­dard of achieve­ments for all peo­ples and all na­tions. Yet, many peo­ple have never read the dec­la­ra­tion and do not know what their rights are.

The U.S. rat­i­fied the Dec­la­ra­tion and is le­gally bound to ad­here to it. Like many other na­tions, it has re­peat­edly vi­o­lated it since rat­i­fi­ca­tion.

A first es­sen­tial step in de­fend­ing one’s rights is to know what those rights are. So, we in­clude The Uni­ver­sal Dec­la­ra­tion of Hu­man Rights in this is­sue of Tril­lions.


Whereas recog­ni­tion of the in­her­ent dig­nity and of the equal and in­alien­able rights of all mem­bers of the hu­man fam­ily is the foun­da­tion of free­dom, jus­tice and peace in the world,

Whereas dis­re­gard and con­tempt for hu­man rights have re­sulted in bar­barous acts which have out­raged the con- sci­ence of mankind, and the ad­vent of a world in which hu­man be­ings shall en­joy free­dom of speech and be­lief and free­dom from fear and want has been pro­claimed as the high­est as­pi­ra­tion of the com­mon peo­ple,

Whereas it is es­sen­tial, if man is not to be com­pelled to have re­course, as a last re­sort, to re­bel­lion against tyranny and op­pres­sion, that hu­man rights should be pro­tected by the rule of law,

Whereas it is es­sen­tial to pro­mote the devel­op­ment of friendly re­la­tions be­tween na­tions,

Whereas the peo­ples of the United Na­tions have in the Char­ter reaf­firmed their faith in fun­da­men­tal hu­man rights, in the dig­nity and worth of the hu­man per­son and in the equal rights of men and women and have de­ter­mined to pro­mote so­cial progress and bet­ter stan­dards of life in larger free­dom,

Whereas Mem­ber States have pledged them­selves to achieve, in co-op­er­a­tion with the United Na­tions, the pro­mo­tion of uni­ver­sal re­spect for and ob­ser­vance of hu­man rights and fun­da­men­tal free­doms,

Whereas a com­mon un­der­stand­ing of these rights and free­doms is of the great­est im­por­tance for the full re­al­iza­tion of this pledge,

Now, There­fore THE GEN­ERAL AS­SEM­BLY pro­claims THIS UNI­VER­SAL DEC­LA­RA­TION OF HU­MAN RIGHTS as a com­mon stan­dard of achieve­ment for all peo­ples and all na­tions, to the end that ev­ery in­di­vid­ual and ev­ery or­gan of so­ci­ety, keep­ing this Dec­la­ra­tion con­stantly in mind, shall strive by teach­ing and ed­u­ca­tion to pro­mote re­spect for these rights and free­doms and by pro­gres­sive mea­sures, na­tional and in­ter­na­tional, to se­cure their uni­ver­sal and ef­fec­tive recog­ni­tion and ob­ser­vance, both among the peo­ples of Mem­ber States them­selves and among the peo­ples of ter­ri­to­ries un­der their ju­ris­dic­tion.

Ar­ti­cle 1. All hu­man be­ings are born free and equal in dig­nity and rights. They are en­dowed with rea­son and con­science and should act to­wards one an­other in a spirit of brother­hood.

Ar­ti­cle 2. Ev­ery­one is en­ti­tled to all the rights and free­doms set forth in this Dec­la­ra­tion, with­out distinc­tion of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, lan­guage, reli­gion, po­lit­i­cal or other opin­ion, na­tional or so­cial ori­gin, prop­erty, birth or other sta­tus. Fur­ther­more, no distinc­tion shall be made on the ba­sis of the po­lit­i­cal, ju­ris­dic­tional or in­ter­na­tional sta­tus of the coun­try or ter­ri­tory to which a per­son be­longs, whether it be in­de­pen­dent, trust, non-self-govern­ing or un­der any other lim­i­ta­tion of sovereignty.

Ar­ti­cle 3. Ev­ery­one has the right to life, lib­erty and se­cu­rity of per­son.

Ar­ti­cle 4. No one shall be held in slav­ery or servi­tude; slav­ery and the slave trade shall be pro­hib­ited in all their forms.

Ar­ti­cle 5. No one shall be sub­jected to tor­ture or to cruel, in­hu­man or de­grad­ing treat­ment or pun­ish­ment.

Ar­ti­cle 6. Ev­ery­one has the right to recog­ni­tion ev­ery­where as a per­son be­fore the law.

Ar­ti­cle 7. All are equal be­fore the law and are en­ti­tled with­out any dis­crim­i­na­tion to equal pro­tec­tion of the law. All are en­ti­tled to equal pro­tec­tion against any dis­crim­i­na­tion in vi­o­la­tion of this Dec­la­ra­tion and against any in­cite­ment to such dis­crim­i­na­tion.

Ar­ti­cle 8. Ev­ery­one has the right to an ef­fec­tive rem­edy by the com­pe­tent na­tional tri­bunals for acts vi­o­lat­ing the fun­da­men­tal rights granted him by the con­sti­tu­tion or by law.

Ar­ti­cle 9. No one shall be sub­jected to ar­bi­trary ar­rest, de­ten­tion or ex­ile.

Ar­ti­cle 10. Ev­ery­one is en­ti­tled in full equal­ity to a fair and public hear­ing by an in­de­pen­dent and im­par­tial tri­bunal, in the de­ter­mi­na­tion of his rights and obli­ga­tions and of any crim­i­nal charge against him.

Ar­ti­cle 11. (1) Ev­ery­one charged with a pe­nal of­fence has the right to be pre­sumed in­no­cent un­til proved guilty ac­cord­ing to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guar­an­tees nec­es­sary for his de­fence. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any pe­nal of­fence on ac­count of any act or omis­sion which did not con­sti­tute a pe­nal of­fence, un­der na­tional or in­ter­na­tional law, at the time when it was com­mit­ted. Nor shall a heav­ier penalty be im­posed than the one that was ap­pli­ca­ble at the time the pe­nal of­fence was com­mit­ted.

Ar­ti­cle 12. No one shall be sub­jected to ar­bi­trary in­ter­fer­ence with his pri­vacy, fam­ily, home or cor­re­spon­dence, nor to at­tacks upon his hon­our and rep­u­ta­tion. Ev­ery­one has the right to the pro­tec­tion of the law against such in­ter­fer­ence or at­tacks.

Ar­ti­cle 13. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to free­dom of move­ment and res­i­dence within the bor­ders of each state. 2) Ev­ery­one has the right to leave any coun­try, in­clud­ing his own, and to re­turn to his coun­try.

Ar­ti­cle 14. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to seek and to en­joy in other coun­tries asy­lum from per­se­cu­tion. (2) This right may not be in­voked in the case of pros­e­cu­tions gen­uinely aris­ing from non-po­lit­i­cal crimes or from acts con­trary to the pur­poses and prin­ci­ples of the United Na­tions.

Ar­ti­cle 15. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to a na­tion­al­ity. (2) No one shall be ar­bi­trar­ily de­prived of his na­tion­al­ity nor de­nied the right to change his na­tion­al­ity.

Ar­ti­cle 16. (1) Men and women of full age, with­out any lim­i­ta­tion due to race, na­tion­al­ity or reli­gion, have the right to marry and to found a fam­ily. They are en­ti­tled to equal rights as to mar­riage, dur­ing mar­riage and at its dis­so­lu­tion. (2) Mar­riage shall be en­tered into only with the free and full con­sent of the in­tend­ing spouses. (3) The fam­ily is the nat­u­ral and fun­da­men­tal group unit of so­ci­ety and is en­ti­tled to pro­tec­tion by so­ci­ety and the State.

Ar­ti­cle 17. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to own prop­erty alone as well as in as­so­ci­a­tion with others. (2) No one shall be ar­bi­trar­ily de­prived of his prop­erty. Ar­ti­cle 18. Ev­ery­one has the right to free­dom of thought,

con­science and reli­gion; this right in­cludes free­dom to change his reli­gion or be­lief, and free­dom, either alone or in com­mu­nity with others and in public or pri­vate, to man­i­fest his reli­gion or be­lief in teach­ing, prac­tice, wor­ship and ob­ser­vance.

Ar­ti­cle 19. Ev­ery­one has the right to free­dom of opin­ion and ex­pres­sion; this right in­cludes free­dom to hold opin­ions with­out in­ter­fer­ence and to seek, re­ceive and im­part in­for­ma­tion and ideas through any me­dia and re­gard­less of fron­tiers.

Ar­ti­cle 20. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to free­dom of peace­ful as­sem­bly and as­so­ci­a­tion. (2) No one may be com­pelled to be­long to an as­so­ci­a­tion.

Ar­ti­cle 21. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to take part in the gov­ern­ment of his coun­try, di­rectly or through freely cho­sen rep­re­sen­ta­tives. (2) Ev­ery­one has the right of equal ac­cess to public ser­vice in his coun­try. (3) The will of the peo­ple shall be the ba­sis of the author­ity of gov­ern­ment; this will shall be ex­pressed in pe­ri­odic and gen­uine elec­tions which shall be by uni­ver­sal and equal suf­frage and shall be held by se­cret vote or by equiv­a­lent free vot­ing pro­ce­dures.

Ar­ti­cle 22. Ev­ery­one, as a mem­ber of so­ci­ety, has the right to so­cial se­cu­rity and is en­ti­tled to re­al­iza­tion, through na­tional ef­fort and in­ter­na­tional co-op­er­a­tion and in ac­cor­dance with the or­ga­ni­za­tion and re­sources of each State, of the eco­nomic, so­cial and cul­tural rights in­dis­pens­able for his dig­nity and the free devel­op­ment of his per­son­al­ity.

Ar­ti­cle 23. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to work, to free choice of em­ploy­ment, to just and favourable con­di­tions of work and to pro­tec­tion against un­em­ploy­ment. (2) Ev­ery­one, with­out any dis­crim­i­na­tion, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Ev­ery­one who works has the right to just and favourable re­mu­ner­a­tion en­sur­ing for him­self and his fam­ily an ex­is­tence wor­thy of hu­man dig­nity, and sup­ple­mented, if nec­es­sary, by other means of so­cial pro­tec­tion. (4) Ev­ery­one has the right to form and to join trade unions for the pro­tec­tion of his in­ter­ests.

Ar­ti­cle 24. Ev­ery­one has the right to rest and leisure, in­clud­ing rea­son­able lim­i­ta­tion of work­ing hours and pe­ri­odic hol­i­days with pay.

Ar­ti­cle 25. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to a stan­dard of liv­ing ad­e­quate for the health and well-be­ing of him­self and of his fam­ily, in­clud­ing food, cloth­ing, hous­ing and med­i­cal care and nec­es­sary so­cial ser­vices, and the right to se­cu­rity in the event of un­em­ploy­ment, sick­ness, dis­abil­ity, wid­ow­hood, old age or other lack of liveli­hood in cir­cum­stances be­yond his con­trol. (2) Moth­er­hood and child­hood are en­ti­tled to spe­cial care and as­sis­tance. All chil­dren, whether born in or out of wed­lock, shall en­joy the same so­cial pro­tec­tion.

Ar­ti­cle 26. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right to ed­u­ca­tion. Ed­u­ca­tion shall be free, at least in the ele­men­tary and fun­da­men­tal stages. Ele­men­tary ed­u­ca­tion shall be com­pul­sory. Tech­ni­cal and pro­fes­sional ed­u­ca­tion shall be made gen­er­ally avail­able and higher ed­u­ca­tion shall be equally ac­ces­si­ble to all on the ba­sis of merit. 2) Ed­u­ca­tion shall be di­rected to the full devel­op­ment of the hu­man per­son­al­ity and to the strength­en­ing of re­spect for hu­man rights and fun­da­men­tal free­doms. It shall pro­mote un­der­stand­ing, tol­er­ance and friendship among all na­tions, racial or re­li­gious groups, and shall fur­ther the ac­tiv­i­ties of the United Na­tions for the main­te­nance of peace. (3) Par­ents have a prior right to choose the kind of ed­u­ca­tion that shall be given to their chil­dren.

Ar­ti­cle 27. (1) Ev­ery­one has the right freely to par­tic­i­pate in the cul­tural life of the com­mu­nity, to en­joy the arts and to share in sci­en­tific ad­vance­ment and its ben­e­fits. (2) Ev­ery­one has the right to the pro­tec­tion of the moral and ma­te­rial in­ter­ests re­sult­ing from any sci­en­tific, lit­er­ary or artis­tic pro­duc­tion of which he is the au­thor.

Ar­ti­cle 28. Ev­ery­one is en­ti­tled to a so­cial and in­ter­na­tional or­der in which the rights and free­doms set forth in this Dec­la­ra­tion can be fully re­al­ized.

Ar­ti­cle 29. (1) Ev­ery­one has du­ties to the com­mu­nity in which alone the free and full devel­op­ment of his per­son­al­ity is pos­si­ble. (2) In the ex­er­cise of his rights and free­doms, ev­ery­one shall be sub­ject only to such lim­i­ta­tions as are de­ter­mined by law solely for the pur­pose of se­cur­ing due recog­ni­tion and re­spect for the rights and free­doms of others and of meet­ing the just re­quire­ments of moral­ity, public or­der and the gen­eral wel­fare in a demo­cratic so­ci­ety. (3) These rights and free­doms may in no case be ex­er­cised con­trary to the pur­poses and prin­ci­ples of the United Na­tions.

Ar­ti­cle 30. Noth­ing in this Dec­la­ra­tion may be in­ter­preted as im­ply­ing for any State, group or per­son any right to en­gage in any ac­tiv­ity or to per­form any act aimed at the de­struc­tion of any of the rights and free­doms set forth herein.

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