Boost­ing the Green Econ­omy

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Boriy ALIKHANOV, Deputy Speaker of the Leg­isla­tive Cham­ber of Oliy Ma­jlis, leader of the Eco­log­i­cal Move­ment of Uzbek­istan. Sergey SAMOILOV, mm­ber of the Leg­isla­tive Cham­ber of the Oliy Ma­jlis.

The qual­i­ta­tive changes tak­ing place in Uzbek­istan in the econ­omy, so­ci­ety and pol­i­tics, as well as pos­i­tive re­sults in all spheres of the coun­try's vi­tal ac­tiv­ity, al­low us to high­light the tasks of fur­ther im­prov­ing the ef­fi­ciency of re­forms and achiev­ing the goals of sus­tain­able devel­op­ment, tak­ing into ac­count the re­quire­ments of the cur­rent fastchang­ing time.

Pro­posed by Pres­i­dent Shavkat Mirziy­oyev and adopted fol­low­ing a broad pub­lic dis­cus­sion, the Strat­egy of Ac­tions on the five pri­or­ity di­rec­tions of devel­op­ment of Uzbek­istan in 2017-2021 is the fun­da­men­tal doc­tri­nal doc­u­ment for the mod­ern­iza­tion of the coun­try. The state pro­gram «Year of Di­a­logue with the Peo­ple and of Hu­man In­ter­ests» pro­vides for ef­fec­tive im­ple­men­ta­tion of state pol­icy, im­prove­ment of man­age­ment and con­trol in the sphere of ecol­ogy, en­vi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion, ra­tio­nal use and re­pro­duc­tion of nat­u­ral re­sources and waste man­age­ment.

The Strat­egy of Ac­tions metic­u­lously takes into ac­count the nat­u­ral, his­tor­i­cal, na­tional, de­mo­graphic and en­vi­ron­men­tal fea­tures in­her­ent in Uzbek­istan, and it has be­come a sig­nif­i­cant step in the process aimed at rad­i­cally en­hanc­ing the ef­fec­tive­ness of on­go­ing demo­cratic re­forms and en­sur­ing the all-round devel­op­ment of the coun­try. Within a short pe­riod of time, as part of its prac­ti­cal im­ple­men­ta­tion, on the ba­sis of a com­pre­hen­sive and in-depth study of the real state of af­fairs on the ground through di­rect di­a­logue with the peo­ple, a num­ber of im­por­tant state and ter­ri­to­rial pro­grams, more than 650 nor­ma­tive and le­gal acts aimed at achiev­ing the goals were pleas­ant.

ADAP­TA­TION TO CLI­MATE CHANGE

Uzbek­istan pur­sues a tar­geted pol­icy on en­ergy con­ser­va­tion in key sec­tors of the econ­omy. To achieve the goals of long-term sus­tain­able devel­op­ment of the coun­try, in­sti­tu­tional ca­pac­ity is be­ing strength­ened, the leg­isla­tive base in the field of re­new­able en­ergy, en­ergy ef­fi­ciency and mech­a­nisms of car­bon fi­nanc­ing are be­ing im­proved.

As one of the tar­gets for the pe­riod up to 2030, the en­ergy in­ten­sity of the gross do­mes­tic prod­uct has been re­duced by about half as a re­sult of the wide­spread in­tro­duc­tion of mod­ern en­ergy-sav­ing tech­nolo­gies. This will save a sig­nif­i­cant amount of pri­mary en­ergy sources, mainly nat­u­ral gas. In­vest­ments in en­ergy ef­fi­ciency and re­new­able en­ergy are rel­e­vant both from the eco­nomic point of view - re­duc­ing en­ergy costs, and with cli­mate - re­duc­ing green­house gas emis­sions.

Uzbek­istan achieved no­table suc­cesses in the im­ple­men­ta­tion of about 20 clean devel­op­ment mech­a­nism projects, par­tic­i­pa­tion in which al­lowed at­tract­ing more than $ 24 mil­lion of for­eign in­vest­ments into the coun­try's bud­get. Only by elim­i­nat­ing leaks in the dis­tri­bu­tion net­works of nine re­gions of the re­pub­lic was about 1 bil­lion cu­bic me­ters of nat­u­ral gas, the to­tal en­ergy sav­ing po­ten­tial in 2013 was 26.6% of the cur­rent vol­ume of green­house gas emis­sions. As a re­sult of the suc­cess­ful adop­tion of mea­sures to adapt and mit­i­gate the ef­fects of cli­mate change, more than 15 mil­lion tonnes of cer­ti­fied CO2 emis­sion re­duc­tions have been is­sued.

The grad­ual mod­ern­iza­tion of in­dus­try and a num­ber of other mea­sures led to the fact that in the pe­riod from 1990 to 2010 the en­ergy in­ten­sity of the coun­try's gross do­mes­tic prod­uct de­creased al­most 2.5 times and al­most by 50% CO2 emis­sions per unit of gross do­mes­tic prod­uct de­creased. At the same time, rapid eco­nomic growth was not ac­com­pa­nied by a sig­nif­i­cant in­crease in green­house gas emis­sions. For 1990-2012, their emis­sions in­creased by only 13.7%, and emis­sions per capita in 2012 com­pared to 1990 de­creased by 21.6%.

A long-term strat­egy for low-car­bon devel­op­ment is cur­rently be­ing dis­cussed, set­ting tar­gets for en­ergy ef­fi­ciency, as well as a «Low Car­bon Devel­op­ment Tran­si­tion Pro­gram» for key sec­tors of the econ­omy that make the main con­tri­bu­tion to green­house gas emis­sions in Uzbek­istan. Ef­fec­tive mea­sures to re­duce green­house gas emis­sions are car­ried out in the oil and gas in­dus­try, elec­tric power, heat sup­ply, build­ings, trans­port, in­dus­try, agri­cul­ture and forestry.

The num­ber of strate­gic doc­u­ments that reg­u­late mea­sures on en­ergy ef­fi­ciency, the in­tro­duc­tion of en­er­gysav­ing tech­nolo­gies, the devel­op­ment of re­new­able en­ergy sources, adopted in the coun­try in re­cent years, con­trib­uted to the devel­op­ment of the reg­u­la­tory frame­work and the in­tro­duc­tion of new fi­nan­cial in­cen­tive mech­a­nisms in this area. At the present time, on the ini­tia­tive of the deputies of the Leg­isla­tive Cham­ber from the Eco­log­i­cal Move­ment, a draft law «On Re­new­able En­ergy Sources» has been de­vel­oped, which has been agreed with the in­ter­ested min­istries, de­part­ments and or­ga­ni­za­tions and is sub­mit­ted to the lower house of par­lia­ment for con­sid­er­a­tion.

Mea­sures taken by the coun­try in the field of en­ergy sav­ing al­lowed Uzbek­istan to sta­bi­lize the level of green­house gas emis­sions and re­duce the coun­try's con­tri­bu­tion to global emis­sions. So, ac­cord­ing to the in­ven­tory of green­house gases, the growth in emis­sions from 1990 to 2010 was only 10%. In 2007-2012, in ac­cor­dance with the gov­ern­ment's de­ci­sion, 188 thou­sand ve­hi­cles were trans­ferred to gas fuel.

The coun­try also pays much at­ten­tion to the devel­op­ment of re­new­able en­ergy sources, es­pe­cially so­lar en­ergy. For more than ten years, hot wa­ter sup­ply sys­tems for res­i­den­tial build­ings and so­cial fa­cil­i­ties have been man­u­fac­tured and are be­ing ap­plied on the ba­sis of so­lar wa­ter heat­ing in­stal­la­tions. A large-scale project for the con­struc­tion of a num­ber of so­lar pho­to­voltaic sta­tions with a ca­pac­ity of

100 MW each is en­vis­aged. It is planned, by 2030, to in­crease the share of re­new­able en­ergy sources in the to­tal bal­ance to 6%.

Im­ple­men­ta­tion of prac­ti­cal mea­sures and strate­gic di­rec­tions of ac­tiv­i­ties aimed at re­duc­ing green­house gas emis­sions, en­hanc­ing adap­ta­tion to cli­mate change, based on Uzbek­istan's na­tional in­ter­ests and pri­or­i­ties, helped cre­ate con­di­tions for the coun­try to meet the re­quire­ments of the Paris Agree­ment, adopted in De­cem­ber 2015.

In April 2017, Uzbek­istan joined this agree­ment, which re­placed the Kyoto Pro­to­col, and, in con­trast to it, set spe­cific re­quire­ments. For ex­am­ple, if our coun­try had no quan­ti­ta­tive obli­ga­tions un­der the Kyoto Pro­to­col in 1998 to re­duce green­house gas emis­sions, then, in ac­cor­dance with the Paris Agree­ment, all states, not only de­vel­oped coun­tries, in­clud­ing Uzbek­istan, should par­tic­i­pate in this process.

The agree­ment de­fines the prin­ci­ples of co­op­er­a­tion and global long-term ac­tions to pre­vent cli­mate change be­yond 2020, in or­der to ful­fill the main ob­jec­tive of the UN Frame­work Con­ven­tion on Cli­mate Change, namely, to sta­bi­lize the con­cen­tra­tion of green­house gases in the at­mos­phere at a level that would pre­vent a dan­ger­ous an­thro­pogenic im­pact on the en­vi­ron­ment. The main obli­ga­tion of coun­tries is the pro­vi­sion of na­tion­ally de­fined de­posits, which they have the op­por­tu­nity to re­view ev­ery five years, start­ing in 2023 and, if de­sired, to in­crease them. The nu­mer­i­cal value of these con­tri­bu­tions is not stan­dard­ized and is de­ter­mined by the coun­try it­self in ac­cor­dance with na­tional in­ter­ests. Other com­mit­ments re­lated to Uzbek­istan in­clude the devel­op­ment of pro­pos­als aimed at for­mu­lat­ing a long-term devel­op­ment strat­egy with low green­house gas emis­sions, strength­en­ing adap­ta­tion ca­pac­i­ties and re­duc­ing vul­ner­a­bil­ity to cli­mate change, and en­sur­ing the im­ple­men­ta­tion of na­tional adap­ta­tion plans. These prac­ti­cal mea­sures are im­ple­mented on the ba­sis of their own na­tional con­di­tions and with the sup­port of de­vel­oped coun­tries.

To en­sure the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the Paris Agree­ment, the Gov­ern­ment of Uzbek­istan has taken con­crete mea­sures, in par­tic­u­lar, an In­ter­de­part­men­tal Work­ing Group has been es­tab­lished. It con­ducted a com­pre­hen­sive, bal­anced as­sess­ment of the dy­nam­ics and pro­jec­tions of green­house gas emis­sions, tak­ing into ac­count eco­nomic growth, the po­ten­tial for their re­duc­tion based on the planned ac­tiv­i­ties re­flected in the sec­toral plans. The base year 2010 was cho­sen, when there were max­i­mum green­house gas emis­sions. The work­ing group cal­cu­lated all pos­si­ble op­tions in ac­cor­dance with the coun­try's ca­pa­bil­i­ties and na­tional in­ter­ests and pro­posed by 2030 the es­ti­mated re­duc­tion of green­house gas emis­sions by 30-35% per unit of gross do­mes­tic prod­uct, with its growth of 4.8%. More­over, this will not af­fect the eco­nomic devel­op­ment of Uzbek­istan.

As part of the im­ple­men­ta­tion of this doc­u­ment, a pres­i­den­tial de­cree of May 26, 2017 «On the Pro­gram of Mea­sures for the Fur­ther Devel­op­ment of Re­new­able En­ergy, Im­prov­ing En­ergy Ef­fi­ciency in the Spheres of the Econ­omy and the So­cial Sphere for 2017-2021» was adopted. It is aimed at fur­ther devel­op­ment of the coun­try's hy­dropower po­ten­tial, with the ex­pan­sion by 2025 of the ca­pac­i­ties of eco­log­i­cally clean hy­dropower of the re­pub­lic by 1.7 times. Also, it is planned to ex­pand the use of re­new­able en­ergy sources, re­duce the en­ergy in­ten­sity of pro­duc­tion, tar­get the in­tro­duc­tion of en­ergy-sav­ing tech­nolo­gies and im­ple­ment in this area the mea­sures de­fined in the Strat­egy for Ac­tion.

It should be noted that the com­mit­ments of the Paris Agree­ment fully cor­re­spond to the strate­gic di­rec­tions of Uzbek­istan's ac­tiv­i­ties, and par­tic­i­pa­tion in it is a chance to at­tract ad­di­tional fi­nan­cial and tech­ni­cal re­sources for the im­ple­men­ta­tion of cur­rent and planned en­ergy sav­ing, re­new­able en­ergy, so­cial, agri­cul­tural and hy­dro-me­te­o­ro­log­i­cal pro­grams. This is con­firmed by the fact that the agree­ment pro­vides for a sep­a­rate com­mit­ment for de­vel­oped coun­tries in pro­vid­ing fi­nan­cial re­sources to as­sist de­vel­op­ing coun­tries both in pre­vent­ing the ef­fects of cli­mate change and adapt­ing to its ad­verse ef­fects.

Ac­cord­ing to the In­ter­a­gency Work­ing Group, the most ac­cept­able ap­proach for Uzbek­istan is the tar­get of lim­it­ing green­house gas emis­sions, tied to a unit of gross do­mes­tic prod­uct. In ad­di­tion, dur­ing 2017-2018 in the eco­nomic and so­cial sec­tors, it is nec­es­sary to pre­pare Com­pre­hen­sive devel­op­ment plans with low green­house gas emis­sions tak­ing into ac­count the cost-ben­e­fit anal­y­sis, as well as the Plan for Adap­ta­tion to the Ad­verse Ef­fects of Cli­mate Change for the Pe­riod to 2030 by In­dus­try econ­omy and re­gions with an es­ti­ma­tion of nec­es­sary fi­nan­cial ex­penses for sub­mis­sion to donors.

Note that in re­cent years the prob­lem of the green­house ef­fect is be­com­ing more and more acute. The cli­mate in the world re­quires ur­gent ac­tion. The ef­fects of cli­mate change, which have al­ready taken place, are hap­pen­ing ever more of­ten. Con­tin­u­ous pre­cip­i­ta­tion be­comes more in­tense, which causes a sharp in­crease in the level of rivers and lakes that flood coastal set­tle­ments. In con­trast, dry ar­eas have be­come even more arid.

Uzbek­istan is one of the coun­tries which most vul­ner­a­ble to cli­mate change. Since the early 1950s, the av­er­age rate of tem­per­a­ture growth across our re­pub­lic has been 0.29 oC per decade, al­most dou­ble the global rate of warm­ing. The fifth as­sess­ment re­port of the In­ter­gov­ern­men­tal Panel on Cli­mate Change and Uzgidromet's fore­casts show that in the fu­ture, in the ab­sence of ad­di­tional ac­tions in this di­rec­tion, the warm­ing trend will in­ten­sify. As a re­sult of the in­crease in the fre­quency and fre­quency of ab­nor­mally hot pe­ri­ods due to the in­ten­si­fi­ca­tion of the green­house ef­fect, melt­ing of glaciers will ac­cel­er­ate, which will lead to the de­ple­tion of the source of sur­face fresh wa­ter and other neg­a­tive con­se­quences.

PRO­TECT THE OZONE LAYER

Sci­en­tists and spe­cial­ists in the seven­ties of the last cen­tury raised ques­tions of the de­struc­tion of the ozone layer of the Earth. In par­tic­u­lar, it was de­ter­mined that the use of ozone-de­plet­ing sub­stances led to the for­ma­tion of a hole in the ozone layer, which pro­tects us from the harm­ful ef­fects of ul­tra­vi­o­let ra­di­a­tion from the sun.

In or­der to pro­tect hu­man health and the en­vi­ron­ment from the con­se­quences of this process, un­der the aus­pices of UNEP, the Vi­enna Con­ven­tion for the Pro­tec­tion of the Ozone Layer was de­vel­oped and adopted in 1985. It has be­come a con­crete mech­a­nism for in­ter­na­tional ef­forts to ad­dress this prob­lem. The con­ven­tion pro­vided for in­ter­na­tional co­op­er­a­tion in sci­en­tific re­search, sys­tem­atic mon­i­tor­ing of the ozone layer, mon­i­tor­ing of ozonede­plet­ing sub­stance pro­duc­tion and ex­change of in­for­ma­tion.

In Septem­ber 1987, the Mon­treal Pro­to­col on Sub­stances that De­plete the Ozone Layer was adopted. Cur­rently, it has been rat­i­fied by 197 coun­tries. It iden­ti­fied the main ozone-de­plet­ing sub­stances, which in­clude chem­i­cal com­pounds of the hy­dro­car­bon class, which in­clude chlo­rine, flu­o­rine, bromine, car­bon and hy­dro­gen, con­trols pro­duc­tion and con­sump­tion, as well as a sched­ule for the re­duc­tion and, ul­ti­mately, the com­plete ces­sa­tion of their pro­duc­tion and ap­pli­ca­tions.

Uzbek­istan, along with other coun­tries of the world com­mu­nity, con­trib­utes to the con­ser­va­tion of the ozone layer of the Earth. In 1993, the re­pub­lic con­firmed the suc­ces­sion in re­spect of its par­tic­i­pa­tion in the Vi­enna Con­ven­tion for the Pro­tec­tion of the Ozone Layer and the Mon­treal Pro­to­col on Sub­stances that De­plete the Ozone Layer and made cor­re­spond­ing com­mit­ments to ful­fill their re­quire­ments. This process is car­ried out on the ba­sis of the Na­tional Pro­gram on the ces­sa­tion of the use of ozone-de­plet­ing sub­stances.

The cur­rent leg­is­la­tion of our coun­try also de­fines the pro­vi­sions and norms gov­ern­ing the con­ser­va­tion of the ozone layer. For ex­am­ple, the laws «On Na­ture Pro­tec­tion» and «On the Pro­tec­tion of At­mo­spheric Air» stip­u­late that en­ter­prises, or­ga­ni­za­tions and in­sti­tu­tions that op­er­ate and re­pair prod­ucts con­tain­ing ozonede­plet­ing sub­stances must en­sure their reg­is­tra­tion and re­place­ment with safe sub­stances and in ac­cor­dance with in­ter­na­tional agree­ments of the Min­istry and agen­cies, en­ter­prises, in­sti­tu­tions, or­ga­ni­za­tions, pri­vate in­di­vid­u­als are obliged to re­duce and sub­se­quently com­pletely stop the pro­duc­tion and use of chem­i­cals harm­ful to the ozone layer.

The adopted gov­ern­ment de­ci­sions have de­ter­mined spe­cific ac­tions and mea­sures to ad­dress the pro­tec­tion of the ozone layer. In par­tic­u­lar, a sys­tem for reg­u­lat­ing the im­port / ex­port of ozone-de­plet­ing sub­stances and prod­ucts con­tain­ing them was in­tro­duced and is op­er­at­ing. In or­der to co­or­di­nate the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the Na­tional Pro­gram for the Ces­sa­tion of the Use of OzoneDe­plet­ing Sub­stances and other projects in this field, in 2001 an Ozone Of­fice for Man­age­ment of Sub­sti­tu­tion of OzoneDe­plet­ing Sub­stances was es­tab­lished.

Within the frame­work of this pro­gram, state reg­u­la­tion mea­sures are be­ing im­ple­mented, and with the sup­port of in­ter­na­tional or­ga­ni­za­tions, a num­ber of projects have been im­ple­mented aimed at train­ing spe­cial­ists of var­i­ous min­istries, de­part­ments, large in­dus­trial or­ga­ni­za­tions, firms, small and pri­vate en­ter­prises work­ing in the field of in­stal­la­tion, equip­ment and air con­di­tion­ing units. Cus­toms of­fi­cers were also trained to cor­rectly rec­og­nize ozone-de­plet­ing sub­stances in or­der to pre­vent their im­por­ta­tion.

Spe­cial men­tion can be made of the im­ple­men­ta­tion of the Na­tional Pro­gram for the Re­cov­ery and Re­cy­cling of Re­frig­er­ants aimed at re­cov­er­ing and re­cy­cling pro­hib­ited re­frig­er­ants from in­dus­trial re­frig­er­a­tion, air con­di­tion­ing and do­mes­tic re­frig­er­a­tors. Its im­ple­men­ta­tion al­lowed to re­duce the im­port of hun­dreds of tons of ozonede­plet­ing sub­stances, re­use the ex­ist­ing pro­hib­ited re­frig­er­ant af­ter its re­cy­cling in the ex­ist­ing equip­ment with­out its re­place­ment to nat­u­ral wear, and also to phase out ob­so­lete equip­ment in stages and with­out dam­age to con­sumers.

Im­por­tance of meet­ing the re­quire­ments of the Mon­treal Pro­to­col was also given to the so­lu­tion of the is­sue of en­vi­ron­men­tally friendly de­struc­tion of ozone-de­plet­ing sub­stances ex­tracted from re­frig­er­a­tion equip­ment and also con­fis­cated dur­ing the cus­toms con­trol of il­le­gally im­ported. Our re­pub­lic did not have the ex­pe­ri­ence of de­stroy­ing the ozone-de­plet­ing sub­stances and prod­ucts con­tain­ing them, and none of the coun­tries of the Cen­tral Asian re­gion had de­stroyed them. Mean­while, the ef­forts of en­vi­ron­men­tal­ists and tech­nol­o­gists have iden­ti­fied the equip­ment and the tech­no­log­i­cal process of burn­ing ozonede­plet­ing sub­stances with ob­ser­vance of the max­i­mum per­mis­si­ble con­cen­tra­tions of pol­lu­tants in emis­sions that are safe for the en­vi­ron­ment and hu­man health.

In ac­cor­dance with the Vi­enna Con­ven­tion for the Pro­tec­tion of the Ozone Layer, reg­u­lar stud­ies of the to­tal ozone con­tent in the moun­tains and foothills of Cen­tral Asia are con­ducted in Uzbek­istan. Be­gin­ning in 1994, Uzhy­dromet me­te­o­ro­log­i­cal sta­tions reg­u­larly mon­i­tor the to­tal ozone con­tent. The re­sults of these ob­ser­va­tions are sent to the World Ozone Data Cen­ter in Toronto, Canada, where in­for­ma­tion from all over the world is recorded. Dur­ing the mon­i­tor­ing of the state of the ozone layer by ter­res­trial, satel­lite and di­rect mea­sure­ments it was found that a steady de­crease in the to­tal ozone con­tent over the moun­tains of Cen­tral Asia is ob­served. At the same time, its con­cen­tra­tion over the wa­ter area of the Caspian Sea was slightly higher than over the coastal and desert zones. Re­cently there has been a ten­dency to re­store the to­tal ozone con­tent. Ac­cord­ing to the re­sults of the re­search, which in­volved about 300 sci­en­tists from 36 coun­tries, as well as the es­ti­mates of sci­en­tists and in­ter­na­tional ex­perts, the ozone layer in the strato­sphere can re­cover by the mid­dle of this cen­tury. Of course, this is the re­sult of the mea­sures taken for more than 30 years, in­clud­ing by our coun­try, as well as other states to pre­serve the ozone layer that pro­tects all life on our planet Earth. This suc­cess clearly demon­strates what we are ca­pa­ble of when we join forces to solve a global prob­lem.

Ac­cord­ing to the es­tab­lished tra­di­tion in Uzbek­istan, an­nual events are held on World Ozone Day. This year, the com­mit­tee on en­vi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion and en­vi­ron­ment in the Leg­isla­tive Cham­ber of Oliy Ma­jlis to­gether with the En­vi­ron­men­tal Move­ment of Uzbek­istan and with the par­tic­i­pa­tion of in­ter­ested state bod­ies, NGOs and in­ter­na­tional or­ga­ni­za­tions held a round ta­ble. Par­tic­u­lar at­ten­tion is paid to dis­cussing the devel­op­ment of the mech­a­nism for im­ple­ment­ing the re­quire­ments of the Vi­enna Con­ven­tion and its pro­to­cols, im­prov­ing leg­is­la­tion in the field of at­mo­spheric air pro­tec­tion, and de­cid­ing on fur­ther steps in pro­tect­ing the ozone layer, as en­sur­ing pro­tec­tion of pub­lic health and sav­ing life on Earth.

ECON­OMY PLUS ECOL­OGY

At the same time, changes in the econ­omy have an un­ques­tion­able im­pact on the state of the en­vi­ron­ment, as well as on the use of nat­u­ral re­sources. There­fore, in this pe­riod of par­tic­u­lar im­por­tance are the eco­nomic as­pects of en­vi­ron­men­tal de­ci­sion-mak­ing, that is, the in­te­gra­tion of en­vi­ron­men­tal and eco­nomic poli­cies.

In these con­di­tions, for the suc­cess­ful so­lu­tion of prob­lems of en­vi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion, ra­tio­nal use of nat­u­ral re­sources and pre­ven­tion of neg­a­tive im­pact on the en­vi­ron­ment, it is nec­es­sary to im­ple­ment eco­nomic meth­ods of en­vi­ron­men­tal man­age­ment and en­vi­ron­men­tal man­age­ment. Par­tic­u­lar at­ten­tion should be paid to the im­ple­men­ta­tion of poli­cies aimed at in­tro­duc­ing re­source-sav­ing and non-waste tech­nolo­gies, im­prov­ing the sys­tem of en­vi­ron­men­tal ser­vices and en­vi­ron­men­tal in­sur­ance, de­vel­op­ing new types of ser­vices, pro­tect­ing pri­vate prop­erty and pri­vate en­trepreneur­ship, in­clud­ing the pro­vi­sion of ap­pro­pri­ate ben­e­fits to small busi­nesses us­ing a wide range of eco­nomic in­stru­ments.

At the same time, it is nec­es­sary to clearly dis­trib­ute the pow­ers be­tween state bod­ies, busi­ness and the pri­vate sec­tor, and in­tro­duce mod­ern meth­ods of or­ga­niz­ing and man­ag­ing pro­duc­tion, adopt the ex­pe­ri­ence of lead­ing for­eign com­pa­nies and com­pa­nies. Such an ap­proach is es­pe­cially im­por­tant in the devel­op­ment of the «green» eco­nom­ics, as well as in the agri­cul­tural sec­tor, where most of the food stuffs that are so nec­es­sary for a full-fledged life and health of peo­ple are pro­duced. The main thing in this process is not the in­ter­ests of state bod­ies, but the in­ter­ests of a per­son, and they must be pri­or­ity, then the state will be strong.

In our opin­ion, the fur­ther tasks of le­gal reg­u­la­tion of en­vi­ron­men­tal re­la­tions at the present stage are to en­sure sta­bi­liza­tion and rad­i­cal im­prove­ment of the state of the en­vi­ron­ment through the «green­ing» of so­cial pro­duc­tion, the im­ple­men­ta­tion of in­sti­tu­tional and struc­tural trans­for­ma­tions that al­low the in­tro­duc­tion of pro­duc­tive ac­tiv­i­ties within the lim­its of ecosys­tem ca­pac­ity through the in­tro­duc­tion of en­ergy- and re­source-sav­ing tech­nolo­gies, tar­geted changes in the struc­ture of pro­duc­tion, fur­ther de­moc­ra­ti­za­tion of so­ci­ety, treat­ment in the eco­nomic and en­vi­ron­men­tal sphere of all seg­ments of so­ci­ety, es­pe­cially the youth.

Un­doubt­edly, the scale of the tasks ex­ist­ing in this sphere re­quires the con­sol­i­da­tion of the ef­forts not only of the state, but of so­ci­ety, as well as of ev­ery cit­i­zen.

The Eco­log­i­cal Move­ment of Uzbek­istan, cre­ated nine years ago, pays spe­cial at­ten­tion to rais­ing the level of eco­log­i­cal cul­ture and eco­log­i­cal ed­u­ca­tion of the pop­u­la­tion, cul­ti­vat­ing the care­ful at­ti­tude of cit­i­zens to the en­vi­ron­ment and nat­u­ral re­sources, as well as their ra­tio­nal use for the ben­e­fit of present and fu­ture gen­er­a­tions. Cur­rently, the draft con­cept of en­vi­ron­men­tal ed­u­ca­tion and train­ing has been de­vel­oped. In the re­gions of the coun­try, to­gether with the part­ners, about 30 eco­log­i­cal gar­dens with a to­tal area of more than 120 hectares have been cre­ated, where more than 3.5 thou­sand fruit and or­na­men­tal trees have been planted, a num­ber of so­cial fa­cil­i­ties have trans­ferred med­i­cal equip­ment and in­stalled so­lar sta­tions, wa­ter heaters and wind gen­er­a­tors for about 400 mil­lion soums. In Tashkent, it is planned to cre­ate ex­em­plary eco­log­i­cal - «green» ter­ri­to­ries. At more than 590 en­ter­prises and or­ga­ni­za­tions of the re­pub­lic, which from the en­vi­ron­men­tal point of view can have the great­est im­pact on the en­vi­ron­ment, rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the Eco­log­i­cal Move­ment are en­sured and pro­vided with method­olog­i­cal tools for work­ing at these fa­cil­i­ties.

With the as­sis­tance of the Pub­lic Fund for Sup­port­ing NGOs and Other Civil So­ci­ety In­sti­tu­tions un­der the Par­lia­ment and other funds, four projects on so­cial or­der and more than 20 grants projects have been im­ple­mented. Within their frame­work, demon­stra­tion in­stal­la­tions for re­new­able en­ergy sources have been im­ple­mented in six re­gions of the re­pub­lic, and mod­ern equip­ment and medicines have been pur­chased for med­i­cal in­sti­tu­tions. Within the frame­work of the project «Im­ple­men­ta­tion of a set of mea­sures to as­sist in im­prov­ing the health in­di­ca­tors of chil­dren in en­vi­ron­men­tally un­fa­vor­able ar­eas of the Surkhandarya re­gion,» more than 550 women, chil­dren and the el­derly re­ceived qual­i­fied med­i­cal care, and med­i­cal in­stru­ments and in­stru­ments were trans­ferred to ru­ral med­i­cal posts. Sim­i­lar projects are be­ing im­ple­mented by the ter­ri­to­rial branches of the Eco-move­ment in var­i­ous re­gions of the re­pub­lic.

(As part of the so­cial or­der of the Oliy Ma­jlis Pub­lic Fund for Sup­port­ing NGOs and Other Civil So­ci­ety In­sti­tu­tions)

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