Tashkent Metro, the Un­der­ground Mir­a­cle of the Cap­i­tal

Uzbekistan Today (English) - - OPIN­ION -

Ex­actly 40 years ago on Novem­ber 6, 1977, the first line of the Tashkent Metro was launched. Its length then was 12.2 km, there were only 9 sta­tions, later it was called Chi­lan­zar Line.

Tashkent is a ma­jes­tic city, unique, sur­pris­ing in all re­spects, per­son­i­fy­ing the eco­nomic and spir­i­tual power of the coun­try, the cre­ative power, dili­gence, kind­ness and hos­pi­tal­ity of our peo­ple.

Ex­actly 40 years ago on Novem­ber 6, 1977, the first line of the Tashkent Metro was launched. Its length then was 12.2 km, there were only 9 sta­tions, later it was called Chi­lan­zar Line.

Tashkent is a ma­jes­tic city, unique, sur­pris­ing in all re­spects, per­son­i­fy­ing the eco­nomic and spir­i­tual power of the coun­try, the cre­ative power, dili­gence, kind­ness and hos­pi­tal­ity of our peo­ple.

The in­hab­i­tants of our cap­i­tal are rightly proud of both an­cient mas­ter­pieces of na­tional ar­chi­tec­ture erected by our great an­ces­tors, as well as mod­ern ar­chi­tec­tural en­sem­bles cre­ated for the last 25 years. The city has many at­trac­tions and one of the main is the Tashkent Metro.

Its con­struc­tion be­gan when the city was re­built after the tragic earth­quake of 1966. And al­ready in 1977 the first metro line was opened, which con­nected the most densely pop­u­lated dis­trict of Tashkent - Chi­lan­zar with the city cen­ter.

It is im­por­tant to note that the emer­gence of the sub­way in our cap­i­tal - the sole merit of the head of the re­pub­lic in those years, Sharaf Rashidov. He re­peat­edly ap­pealed to the coun­try's gov­ern­ing bod­ies to ob­tain per­mis­sion for the con­struc­tion of the metro in Tashkent, per­son­ally pestered the thresh­olds of min­istries and de­part­ments, asked, per­suaded, and ar­gued. And, ap­par­ently, his enor­mous au­thor­ity in party and eco­nomic bod­ies af­fected him - he nev­er­the­less achieved a pos­i­tive re­sponse to this re­quest, which was then im­pos­si­ble. And the fact that the metro in Tashkent still ap­peared, be­com­ing the most con­ve­nient and beloved kind of pub­lic trans­port, and be­sides a unique sight, an un­usual un­der­ground mir­a­cle, is first of all the merit of the great statesman Sharaf Rashidov,

The 100th an­niver­sary of his birth is now widely cel­e­brated in Uzbek­istan. We must pay tribute to Sharaf Rashidovich - the con­struc­tion of the metro in a seis­mi­cally dan­ger­ous re­gion was a very bold and risky idea, con­nected with many dif­fi­cul­ties, but which even­tu­ally re­sulted in the con­struc­tion of a unique struc­ture.

After the launch of the first line of work con­tin­ued, and after sev­eral years its length in­creased, new sta­tions ap­peared.

In 1980, con­struc­tion of the Uzbek line was started. It was also built step by step. The first part of it - from the Alisher Navoi sta­tion to the Tashkent sta­tion, where the rail­way sta­tion of Tashkent is lo­cated, was com­pleted in 1984. And in 1987, the sec­ond sec­tion was com­pleted, con­nect­ing the sta­tion with the Tash­sel­mash plant (now Mashina­so­zlar) and the avi­a­tion plant (now Dust­lik). And, fi­nally, the third seg­ment of the Uzbek­istan branch, which con­nected the sta­tion of Alisher Navoi with the Chorsu mar­ket and the old city (Ga­fur Gu­lam sta­tion), and also the univer­sity, be­gan its work in 1991. At present, the Uzbek­istan line con­sists of 11 sta­tions, and its length is 14.3 km.

In the years of in­de­pen­dence, the con­struc­tion of the third branch of the Tashkent Metro, Yunus­abad, be­gan. The first sec­tion, which con­nected the city cen­ter and the Tashkent TV tower area, was com­mis­sioned in 2001. At present, work is un­der­way to cre­ate a sec­ond sec­tion of the line, which should last un­til the Yunus­abad hous­ing es­tate and end with a sta­tion near the Tashkent ring road.

From the very be­gin­ning of the con­struc­tion of the metro were built tak­ing into ac­count the high seis­mic­ity of the re­gion. All de­signs are de­signed to re­sist earth­quakes to 9 points on the Richter scale. Of course, there were no such dev­as­tat­ing earth­quakes as oc­curred in 1966, since then, in Tashkent, but the weaker shocks that reg­u­larly oc­cur in our cap­i­tal met the metro suc­cess­fully. His work has never been in­ter­rupted since the open­ing of the first site.

Dur­ing the con­struc­tion of the metro, work­ers en­coun­tered the com­plex be­hav­ior of soils. Due to the vi­bra­tion of the mech­a­nisms, the ar­ray was com­pacted and, ac­cord­ingly, the vol­ume oc­cu­pied by the ground was re­duced). As a re­sult, the pan­els used re­peat­edly fell be­low the de­sign mark and com­plex and costly work was car­ried out to re­turn them to the tra­jec­tory. In this re­gard, the speed of pen­e­tra­tion by mech­a­nized com­plexes was much less than the speed of non­mech­a­nized shields, and even­tu­ally the ma­jor­ity of the tun­nels were built in a non-mech­a­nized way.

To be sure, the Tashkent metro in terms of the length of lines and num­ber of sta­tions is much smaller that the sub­ways in Mos­cow or New York, yet it is per­haps one of the most fine-look­ing in the world.

To­day Tashkent un­der­ground is home to 29 sta­tions. All of them have their own amaz­ing ar­chi­tec­tural ap­pear­ance: unique dec­o­ra­tion, rows of col­umns, color­ful bas-re­liefs, ganch. An im­por­tant role in their de­sign is played by light­ing, which at each sta­tion dif­fer­ently and ev­ery­where cre­ates a spe­cial at­mos­phere.

At their con­struc­tion only lo­cal dec­o­ra­tion ma­te­ri­als were used - pink­ish and light gray mar­bles from the Gaz­gan and Nu­rata de­posits, gran­ites and dior­ites of dif­fer­ent shades from the Ku­rama and Chatkal Moun­tains. Widely used tra­di­tional for the Uzbek art ir­ri­ga­tion ce­ram­ics and art glass. The best de­sign­ers and artists of the re­pub­lic were at­tracted to the de­sign of the metro. Each of the sta­tions has a unique so­lu­tion. So, for ex­am­ple, white mar­ble col­umns and huge crys­tal chan­de­liers un­der high arches give solem­nity to the Mus­taqil­lik Maidoni sta­tion the In­de­pen­dence Square. Domes, dec­o­rated with ma­jolica or­na­men­ta­tion, and ce­ramic re­lieves with scenes from the works of the great Uzbek poet dec­o­rate the Navoi sta­tion. Bronze lamps, rem­i­nis­cent of can­de­labra with can­dles, at the Pushkin sta­tion recre­ate the era of the early XIX cen­tury. Be­fore the pas­sen­gers of the Kos­mon­avt­lar sta­tion the story of the devel­op­ment of the near-Earth space un­folds, de­picted on pan­els re­sem­bling the port­holes of space­ships. In the de­sign of some sta­tions, tra­di­tional Uzbek or­na­men­tal mo­tifs were used.

In gen­eral, all sub­way sta­tions are the sights of Tashkent. There­fore, you are not sur­prised when you see the amazed faces of tourists ad­mir­ing this un­der­ground fairy-tale beauty.

Let's add to this that the sub­way air-con­di­tion­ing sys­tem will al­ways pro­tect pas­sen­gers from sum­mer heat and win­ter cold. Thus trav­el­ing through this dun­geon is al­ways a plea­sure.

One can not help say­ing that in re­cent years there have been some prob­lems in the devel­op­ment of the Tashkent Metro. De­spite of­fi­cial fore­casts that the vol­ume of traf­fic there had to in­crease steadily, in fact there was a drop in pas­sen­ger traf­fic. This was sur­pris­ing, given that Tashkent has more than two and a half mil­lion in­hab­i­tants, not to men­tion nu­mer­ous guests and tourists. How­ever, the rea­sons for the in­suf­fi­cient con­ges­tion of this trans­port sys­tem are in gen­eral ob­vi­ous - this is due to the fact that all the metro lines are not brought to the most pop­u­lated res­i­den­tial mi­crodis­tricts of our cap­i­tal lo­cated on its out­skirts. This is, for ex­am­ple, Karakamysh in the north­west, Yunus­abad in the north, Karasu and Feruza in the north­east, Yan­giabad in the south­east, Sergeli in the south. It is clear that the res­i­dents of these ar­eas use buses and a fixed-route taxi to save money to avoid a trans­fer.

There­fore, at the ini­tia­tive of the head of state, a de­ci­sion was taken to ex­tend the metro sys­tem of the metro as part of the fur­ther devel­op­ment of the trans­port and com­mu­ni­ca­tion sys­tem. This was in­cluded in the num­ber of projects that are ex­tremely im­por­tant for the life of the city.

The other day in the In­ter­na­tional Press Club held a reg­u­lar meet­ing on the theme «The Tashkent sub­way on the way to new di­rec­tions.» On it were dis­cussed the on­go­ing work on the con­struc­tion of the land ring line of the Tashkent sub­way.

Speak­ers - Deputy Chair­man of the Board of Uzbek­iston Temir Yol­lari JSC, Head of the Toshkent Met­rosi Uni­tary En­ter­prise (UE) Oy­bek Khu­doykulov, Man­ager of Kuprik quril­ish tresti UE Za­far Ma­ham­a­tov and Chief En­gi­neer of the New Metro Project Ed­uard Kan spoke at the ses­sion.

In 2016, work be­gan on the con­struc­tion of the Sergeli line of the un­der­ground metro, the length of which is more than 7 km, as well as the Yunus­abad line, con­sist­ing of three sta­tions. To­day, rapid con­struc­tion and in­stal­la­tion work is un­der­way. In ad­di­tion, rail­way builders are also in­volved in the con­struc­tion of the land ring line in Tashkent.

As for the Sergeli line, which should con­nect a re­mote res­i­den­tial area to the city cen­ter, the branch, 8 km long, will con­sist of 6 sta­tions.

As re­ported in the Bosh­transloy­iha joint-stock com­pany, for en­gi­neer­ing-ge­o­log­i­cal rea­sons, the con­struc­tion of an un­der­ground line in Sergeli is fraught with great dif­fi­cul­ties. There­fore, a «light metro» will be built here, that is, the lines will not be lo­cated be­low, but above the ground. The Sergeli line will start from the Ol­ma­zor sta­tion of the Chi­lan­zar line and will in­clude 6 sta­tions.

The project cost of build­ing a new metro line length 7.1 kilo­me­ters in 2017-2020 will be $ 170.1 mil­lion. It will serve more than 14 mil­lion pas­sen­gers a year. The line will pass through the Choshtepa ma­halla with the fi­nal sta­tion on Maghrib street of the Yul­dosh mas­sif of Sergeli dis­trict. At the sta­tions will be equipped with wait­ing rooms with es­ca­la­tors.

Over­passes will be raised above the ground by 8 me­ters. The de­sign, de­sign and de­sign of each sta­tion will be rad­i­cally dif­fer­ent from each other. In this case, gran­ite, mar­ble, glass, ce­ram­ics will be used. Ac­cord­ing to the project, on both sides of the metro line roads will be built, and along them - mod­ern hous­ing, so­cial fa­cil­i­ties and ser­vice points. The most im­por­tant thing is that the open­ing of the metro in one of the in­dus­trial dis­tricts of the cap­i­tal will give a pow­er­ful im­pe­tus to its fur­ther devel­op­ment, im­prov­ing the in­fras­truc­ture and in­creas­ing the pop­u­la­tion's ac­cess to pub­lic trans­port ser­vices.

And on the Yunus­abad sub­way line, cur­rently con­struc­tion com­pa­nies at the Uzbek­iston Temir Yol­lari joint-stock com­pany con­tinue its lay­ing fur­ther with the con­struc­tion of the Turk­iston sta­tion.

The dis­tance be­tween the cur­rent ter­mi­nal sta­tion Shahris­ton and the new Turk­iston is 2.7 kilo­me­ters. In con­struc­tion, more than 50 units of mod­ern tech­nol­ogy and more than 200 spe­cial­ists are in­volved. The com­ple­tion date is two years, but the builders prom­ise to com­plete the work ahead of time.

The meet­ing de­tails that the Pres­i­dent of Uzbek­istan Shavkat Mirziy­oyev re­cently got ac­quainted with the project of the ring line of the metro and its main di­rec­tions, and gave cor­re­spond­ing in­struc­tions on its ef­fec­tive im­ple­men­ta­tion.

The con­struc­tion plan was de­vel­oped by spe­cial­ists of the Bosh­transloy­iha joint-stock com­pany. Ac­cord­ing to this plan, the to­tal length of the metro is 52.1 km. In ad­di­tion, a sec­tion of the 50.5 km metro line will be run through a 6 m high fly­over, the re­main­ing 1.6 km will be built on the ground.

The project, de­signed for 2017-2021, will be im­ple­mented in five ar­eas. The num­ber of sta­tions of this line will be 35. Note­wor­thy is the fact that dur­ing the con­struc­tion, no one build­ing, no house in the city will be de­mol­ished.

At the ini­tial stage, a part of the metro will be built from the metro sta­tion Dust­lik to the Kuy­lyuk bazaar, con­sist­ing of 8 sta­tions. Later the line will be con­nected to the Ol­ma­zor, Beruniy, Bodom­zor and Tuzel sta­tions at the in­ter­sec­tion of the Dust­lik sta­tion, which sub­se­quently forms a com­plete ring line. Ac­cord­ing to the project, this di­rec­tion of the metro will pass through the dis­tricts of Yash­no­bod, Uchtepa, Ol­ma­zor, Yunuso­bod, Chilon­zor and Sergeli.

At the mo­ment, work is un­der­way to as­sem­ble a re­in­forced con­crete col­umn 6 m high. They will be equipped with 11-me­ter de­vices, «steel tracks» will be laid, which will al­low si­mul­ta­ne­ous move­ment of the two trains in op­po­site di­rec­tions.

Hav­ing fa­mil­iar­ized with the project, the Pres­i­dent of the coun­try gave an or­der to com­plete the con­struc­tion by 2020, that is, ahead of the orig­i­nal terms for one year. Pro­ceed­ing from this, for to­day all works are con­ducted con­tin­u­ously.

For con­struc­tion ma­te­ri­als of do­mes­tic pro­duc­tion are used. All this helps high-qual­ity and fast con­struc­tion, and also serves to op­ti­mize the cost price. At the mo­ment, on the part of the Kuprik quril­ish tresti UE, works are un­der­way to in­stall re­in­forced con­crete col­umns us­ing the mono­lithic method for over­passes.

It is note­wor­thy that to this com­plex work, the most ex­pe­ri­enced en­gi­neers, de­sign­ers and qual­i­fied spe­cial­ists are in­volved. In ad­di­tion, in prac­tice, the best ex­am­ples of world ex­pe­ri­ence will be used. The main ob­jec­tive of this project is to cre­ate more fa­vor­able con­di­tions for the move­ment of the pop­u­la­tion, as well as the or­ga­ni­za­tion of trans­port ser­vices at the level of in­ter­na­tional stan­dards.

Speaker Za­far Ma­ham­a­tov, in par­tic­u­lar, noted that to pro­vide ad­di­tional ameni­ties for ci­ti­zens and to cre­ate new jobs, the task was to build a land-ring metro line of 52.1 km in length. So, the height of the pro­jected bridge will be 6 m, and the in­ter­me­di­ate spa­ces - 27 m. The project will be per­formed by a mono­lithic method. In terms of sus­tain­abil­ity, it will meet world stan­dards.

The chief en­gi­neer of the project, Ed­uard Kan, noted in his speech that the es­ti­mated flow of pas­sen­gers, the devel­op­ment of the mas­ter plan of Tashkent, the growth and den­sity of the pop­u­la­tion of each dis­trict are taken into ac­count in its devel­op­ment. At the same time, de­sign works are care­fully con­sid­ered, de­ter­min­ing the least dam­age to all in­fra­struc­tures.

An­swer­ing the ques­tion about the use of for­eign ex­pe­ri­ence in the con­struc­tion of bridges and over­passes, the speaker Za­far Ma­ham­a­tov stressed that the ex­pe­ri­ence of con­struc­tion of the metro in Korea, China and Rus­sia was thor­oughly stud­ied. And when plan­ning the struc­ture, dif­fer­ent op­tions were con­sid­ered, but in the end, the op­ti­mal length was cho­sen to be 27 m.

In view of the fact that Uzbek­istan has no ex­pe­ri­ence in build­ing a ground-based metro, it is pos­si­ble that there are a num­ber of tech­ni­cal dif­fi­cul­ties. The speaker also noted that all ma­te­ri­als used in the con­struc­tion of the metro are man­u­fac­tured ex­clu­sively in Uzbek­istan.

In gen­eral, this build­ing has sound-ab­sorb­ing pan­els. And in the medium-term per­spec­tive, the phased op­er­a­tion of new metro sta­tions is ex­pected.

Ed­uard Kan also noted that do­mes­tic spe­cial­ists con­ducted a thor­ough study of for­eign ex­pe­ri­ence. They, in par­tic­u­lar, went to Mos­cow, stud­ied a sim­i­lar over­pass view of the metro. Chi­nese ex­perts were in­vited to ex­change ex­pe­ri­ence and tech­nol­ogy, and at the mo­ment there is a study of the lat­est tech­nolo­gies for their use.

The ex­pert, the chief en­gi­neer of the Tashkent Metro Bakhtiyor Sodikov added that to­day there are pref­er­en­tial travel cards. He ex­plained that if the pas­sage in the metro at the mo­ment is 1,200 soums, then pay­ing the fare, the pas­sen­gers will ac­tu­ally pay 820 soums. Prices will de­pend on the tar­iffs for fuel and other ma­te­ri­als needed for the sub­way.

When asked about the in­tro­duc­tion of a new pay­ment method at all sta­tions of the Tashkent Metro, Speaker Oy­bek Khu­doykulov replied that for to­day the au­to­mated pay­ment sys­tem has been op­er­at­ing in the ex­per­i­men­tal mode for more than 2 months. If this project is suc­cess­ful, then in the fu­ture, in­no­va­tion will be in­tro­duced ev­ery­where.

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