In Sim­ple Word­ing on the Prin­ci­pal Ques­tion

Uzbekistan Today (English) - - OUR GUEST -

In ques­tions of cor­rect way of life and food - the ba­sic fac­tors of preser­va­tion of health and in the long run - longevity there are much more er­rors and myths, than in any other field of hu­man knowl­edge. The Ga­fur Gulyam Pub­lish­ers in Tashkent pre­sented a book “In Sim­ple Word­ing on the Prin­ci­pal Ques­tion”, in which an at­tempt was made to put an end to many con­tro­ver­sial is­sues. Its au­thor Pavel Ch­ernysh is a guest of our news­pa­per.

There have al­ways been a lot of con­tro­ver­sies around dif­fer­ent di­ets and their health ben­e­fits, many like to talk about how to lead a healthy life­style. Re­cently, this list of eter­nal top­ics has been re­plen­ished with new ones, the birth of which is con­nected with the achieve­ments of sci­ence. Are ge­net­i­cally mod­i­fied foods so dan­ger­ous, how scary are they? How to treat mar­garines, milk, fizzy drinks? On all these is­sues, ab­so­lutely op­po­site ex­pla­na­tions were es­tab­lished in life. What to be­lieve? You just need to know the whole truth about each is­sue. And this truth is avail­able in the lan­guage of the new book of the Doc­tor of Med­i­cal Sciences Pavel Ch­ernysh. The book con­tains only those rec­om­men­da­tions that are con­firmed by med­i­cal re­search. In an ac­ces­si­ble form, the need to ob­serve cau­tion to var­i­ous di­ets that ap­peared in pop­u­lar lit­er­a­ture lately is shown, the im­por­tance of an in­di­vid­ual ap­proach is shown when choos­ing phys­i­cal ex­er­tion, the role of bi­o­log­i­cally ac­tive sub­stances and vi­ta­mins in main­tain­ing health. The in­for­ma­tion given on bio­chem­istry and hu­man phys­i­ol­ogy jus­tify the rec­om­men­da­tions on the or­ga­ni­za­tion of nu­tri­tion for both healthy and sick peo­ple. The book will be of in­ter­est to a wide range of read­ers in­ter­ested in medicine, ra­tio­nal nu­tri­tion and just their health.

It is unique in that, ac­cord­ing to its read­ing, ev­ery­one, know­ing all the pros and cons of this or that ques­tion, will make in­de­pen­dent con­clu­sions for himself. There are no uni­ver­sal and cat­e­gor­i­cal an­swers. Every­thing is good in mod­er­a­tion, and ev­ery­one de­fines it for himself. In this case, do not for­get that health de­pends on your life­style, habits and nu­tri­tion.

Mean­while, we could not miss the chance to ask the au­thor a few ques­tions about the re­sults of his other re­search, which has al­ready been well-known in the mass media. Pavel Ch­ernysh grad­u­ated from the S.M.Kirov Military Med­i­cal Academy in the city of Len­ingrad. He was awarded the ti­tle Hon­ored Health Worker of the Repub­lic of Uzbek­istan, and is the au­thor of more than 75 sci­en­tific works on car­di­ol­ogy, en­docrinol­ogy, five mono­graphs on the right way of life and ra­tio­nal nu­tri­tion.

- Sev­eral years ago, the media re­ported that you are of­fer­ing a new way of treat­ing di­a­betes, which gives a chance for a full re­cov­ery. You aban­doned the in­sulin the­ory and built their own devel­op­ment on the hy­poth­e­sis of cor­ti­sol-de­pen­dence of di­a­betes mel­li­tus. The pub­li­ca­tions said that phar­ma­cies have the nec­es­sary pills for his treat­ment. But we do not hear any­thing about the re­sults of this devel­op­ment. Tell us more about this.

- The prob­lem of type II di­a­betes is very com­plex and mul­ti­fac­eted, so it is still im­pos­si­ble to solve it in the world. But, per­haps, the sci­en­tists are look­ing for an an­swer to this ques­tion “not quite there”. We sug­gested that the key link in the whole chain of meta­bolic dis­or­ders in di­a­betes mel­li­tus type II may be an in­ad­e­quate in­crease in the level of cor­ti­sol in the blood (or, as it is also called - the ‘stress hor­mone’) in a cer­tain cat­e­gory of peo­ple for whom a rel­a­tively low level of birth is typ­i­cal, but this is their in­di­vid­ual norm.

Un­der stress, the level of cor­ti­sol in these in­di­vid­u­als may in­crease by 2-3 times, although it does not leave the lim­its of the gen­er­ally ac­cepted norm, but be on its up­per limit. This chronic in­crease in cor­ti­sol trig­gers a cas­cade of re­ac­tions, lead­ing to the devel­op­ment of di­a­betes mel­li­tus. In our study, we showed that the drug re­duc­tion in cor­ti­sol in pa­tients with di­a­betes to cer­tain lev­els causes them to lower blood glu­cose lev­els, and re­duce the so­called in­sulin re­sis­tance, that is, there is an in­crease in the sen­si­tiv­ity of body tis­sues to their own in­sulin.

We be­lieve that main­tain­ing the level of cor­ti­sol in the blood for cer­tain val­ues within a year or a lit­tle more can lead to the dis­ap­pear­ance of patho­log­i­cal cir­cles that sup­port the state of in­sulin re­sis­tance and cause the clin­i­cal man­i­fes­ta­tions of di­a­betes mel­li­tus. Sim­ply put, in a pa­tient, di­a­betes can go away as a dis­ease in about a year.

Un­for­tu­nately, un­til now, there are no drugs that safely re­duce the level of cor­ti­sol in the blood. That drug, which we used in the ex­per­i­ment, is ac­tu­ally sold in phar­ma­cies, is very cheap, but is used for other dis­eases. To rec­om­mend it for mass ap­pli­ca­tion to di­a­bet­ics it is im­pos­si­ble, as it is poorly tol­er­ated by them in those dosages that are nec­es­sary.

Most im­por­tantly, we have re­ceived con­fir­ma­tion that, act­ing on the level of cor­ti­sol, it is pos­si­ble to pos­i­tively in­flu­ence the course of di­a­betes mel­li­tus. If the re­search con­tin­ues, it may rad­i­cally change our un­der­stand­ing of this dis­ease and help to cope with it.

- The media talked about the new way you de­vel­oped a di­ag­no­sis of pre­dis­po­si­tion to di­a­betes, which helps to de­ter­mine this fea­ture long be­fore its clin­i­cal man­i­fes­ta­tion. Please tell me where can I buy such a de­vice so that I can ex­am­ine the whole fam­ily?

- Such in­stru­ments as meta­bolic are not some ex­otic. They are avail­able, fairly cheap and widely used for the se­lec­tion of di­ets for ath­letes, for fit­ness classes, and also in clin­i­cal prac­tice for cal­cu­lat­ing nu­tri­tional needs, for ex­am­ple in post-op­er­a­tive pa­tients. It turned out that this de­vice can also be used to di­ag­nose a pre­dis­po­si­tion to di­a­betes mel­li­tus type II.

A group of our sci­en­tists found that pa­tients with di­a­betes re­spond to psy­choe­mo­tional stress by a very def­i­nite change in me­tab­o­lism in the body, which we called the “di­a­betic pro­file of me­tab­o­lism”. Sur­pris­ingly, ap­prox­i­mately 8% of healthy young peo­ple showed ex­actly the same changes in re­sponse to stress, as if they al­ready ex­pe­ri­enced this dis­ease.

With fur­ther ex­am­i­na­tion, it was found that most of them had im­me­di­ate rel­a­tives who had di­a­betes. This al­lowed us to con­clude that the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the body’s re­ac­tion to un­fa­vor­able fac­tors (stress) can serve as a marker of pre­dis­po­si­tion to this dis­ease. The method of ex­am­i­na­tion is fairly sim­ple, takes 15-20 min­utes and does not re­quire any spe­cial train­ing of a spe­cial­ist. The in­tro­duc­tion of it into a wide prac­tice in the form of a screen­ing sur­vey would help to iden­tify such per­sons and fur­ther ori­ent them to­wards the choice of pro­fes­sions that are not as­so­ci­ated with in­ten­sive stresses, ex­clud­ing other risk fac­tors for the devel­op­ment of di­a­betes.

- You are de­vel­op­ing new meth­ods of di­ag­no­sis and treat­ment of di­a­betes. Tell me, why rein­vent the wheel when there is molec­u­lar-ge­netic di­ag­no­sis and PCR-an­a­lyz­ers?

- The fact is that un­til now there are no spe­cific genes responsible for the devel­op­ment of type II di­a­betes mel­li­tus. Most likely, they will not be found, although work is in progress in this di­rec­tion. I re­peat that di­a­betes mel­li­tus is a multi-faceted dis­ease, it is even thought that this is not one, but a group of sim­i­lar dis­eases in its mech­a­nism, so in this as­pect there can­not be any spe­cific genes. Given the known and di­verse risk fac­tors, this refers to the re­ac­tion of the or­gan­ism to them as an in­te­gral sys­tem and the in­volve­ment of a very large num­ber of genes in this re­ac­tion. In ad­di­tion, ge­netic meth­ods to date are la­bo­ri­ous, re­quire ex­pen­sive equip­ment and are not avail­able to most pa­tients, not to men­tion healthy. And PCR­an­a­lyz­ers for these pur­poses are not in­tended at all.

- Since your pre­vi­ous book, “Why do we grow old?” have your be­liefs about this process changed? In my opin­ion, a per­son can never un­der­stand this mys­tery, so why do sci­en­tists con­stantly want to please us that they man­aged to find a so­lu­tion to the prob­lem? Each time it turns out that the new as­sump­tions are an­other mis­take or have noth­ing plau­si­ble.

- The is­sue of ag­ing is one of the fun­da­men­tal mys­ter­ies of bi­ol­ogy, which have been wor­ry­ing mankind for thou­sands of years. That is why in this field of knowl­edge there are so many dif­fer­ent kinds of spec­u­la­tion. As a rule, var­i­ous kinds of pub­li­ca­tions in the media and ap­pear­ances on tele­vi­sion pur­sue one goal ad­ver­tis­ing.

Real sci­en­tists dealing with geron­tol­ogy are never in­ter­ested in ex­ces­sive hype and will not pub­lish untested or dis­puted data. More­over, the mod­ern achieve­ments of geron­tol­ogy can put be­fore so­ci­ety the same real and acute is­sues in social, cul­tural, and eco­nomic spheres, there­fore here, as in no other field of knowl­edge, a cau­tious and bal­anced ap­proach is im­por­tant.

- Tell me, can you slow down the ag­ing process, and if ‘yes’, where can one read more about it?

- I am con­vinced that it is pos­si­ble to in­flu­ence it in terms of slow­ing down the is­sues of ag­ing for more than 20 years. How­ever, in life we of­ten shorten our lives with harm­ful habits, wrong ways of life and ul­ti­mately do not live to the limit that is given to us by na­ture. Now be­fore geron­tol­o­gists, the task is not really an ab­so­lute ex­ten­sion of life as such, but how to pre­vent or, at any rate, slow the on­set of se­nile in­fir­mity and the devel­op­ment of age-re­lated dis­eases, which be­come a heavy bur­den for both the per­son himself and his as­so­ci­ates. Un­for­tu­nately, I can­not rec­om­mend any lit­er­a­ture, be­cause de­spite the abun­dance of var­i­ous meth­ods and tech­niques of pro­long­ing life, and even more so of re­ju­ve­na­tion, a real ex­ten­sion of hu­man life has not yet been achieved, in­clud­ing by the geron­tol­o­gists them­selves.

- What are you cur­rently work­ing on in the ar­eas of di­a­betes and ag­ing, and in oth­ers?

- With re­gard to di­a­betes and ag­ing, the main points of my re­search we touched on above. At the same time, I also deal with tu­mor pro­cesses. At present, there is enough knowl­edge in this field that al­lows us to look at the pro­cesses un­der­ly­ing the de­gen­er­a­tion of a nor­mal cell into a can­cer­ous cell, and give hope that the can­cer will cease to be a fa­tal dis­ease. And this will also con­trib­ute to the ex­ten­sion of life.

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