How Secure is the Rule of Law in the Country?
The Ijtimoiy Fikr Center for the Study of Public Opinion, in accordance with the Strategy of Action, conducted a sociological survey on the reform of the judicial and legal system. Its purpose is to identify the level of public awareness in this direction
The study showed that it is important for the citizens of the country that the main goal of legal reforms is to ensure the rule of law and order in the country, increase the effectiveness of the system of combating crime and preventing crime, strengthening the role of the judiciary in protecting the rights and legitimate interests of citizens, strengthening the authority and true independence of the courts, in effectively ensuring the protection of the rights and freedoms of citizens and improving current legislation.
According to the respondents, judicial and legal reform is increasingly penetrating the process of renewing the life of the state and society, positive results have been achieved in increasing the rights and freedoms of citizens, access to justice, reducing bureaucratic obstacles, ensuring security and justice.
The public opinion is dominated by the conviction of citizens that in the coming years even more tangible positive results of the reform in this direction will be achieved: people believe that in the future the general rule of law will prevail in society, the rights, honor and dignity of citizens will be fully and comprehensively protected , universally approved and ensured the priority of human rights and freedoms; results will be achieved in countering corruption and ensuring the true independence of the judiciary.
The survey revealed a high level of protection of the rights and legitimate interests of citizens from all kinds of encroachments. 94.5% of respondents noted that they feel their legal security from possible violations of the rights and infringements of their legitimate interests. Monitoring of the results of surveys for 20172018 revealed that the indicators of legal protection of citizens remain consistently high.
According to the absolute majority of citizens, basic constitutional human rights are guaranteed and protected by the state in Uzbekistan, protection of the honor and dignity of people is guaranteed, equal rights for all to receive education, work, social security, obtaining qualified medical services, creating a family, reproductive right are created , freedom of religion, the ability to comply with national traditions and customs, the right to property.
The public opinion poll showed that the National reception offices of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan have an important role in the observance of the constitutional rights of citizens and social justice in society. The majority of respondents (72.5%) in case of violation of their rights and infringement of legitimate interests apply for help to the People’s Receptions of the President of Uzbekistan, which, according to citizens, have become a nationwide institution for a relatively short period that protects the interests of ordinary citizens and strengthen the rule of law.
In case of violation of rights and legitimate interests, 59.4% of citizens turn for help to citizens’ assemblies (mahallas) at their place of residence.
The study revealed that residents of the republic know the text of the Basic Law of the state quite well: the majority (66.4%) read the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Those surveyed who responded that they are well aware of the content of the Basic Law are dominated by those with higher education, military personnel, law enforcement officers and students. At the same time, it was revealed that 31.6% of respondents are not sufficiently familiar with the text of the country's Constitution.
Citizens expressed the opinion that the constitutional legislation as a whole is not static and cannot be recognized as unchanged. Like the entire legal reality, the legal base is constantly in dynamics, undergoing changes in the course of the development of society, undergoes improvement, new institutions appear in its structure, reflecting the development of political, economic and social relations. Citizens believe that possible changes and additions to the existing constitutional system allow us to improve and optimize the Constitution, taking into account modern requirements and international standards in justice.
The study showed that the number of citizens in the country is growing; trying to live by the law, solve problems that arise, without violating the current legislation. In the opinion of citizens, to further increase the importance of respecting the rule of law in society, it is necessary to form a legal culture, create an atmosphere of intolerance to any manifestations of violations of the law, human rights and freedoms, increase access of the population and civil society institutions to information related to decisions affecting interests of citizens, the adoption of new laws, changes in legislation.
According to respondents, on the one hand, in order to further improve the legal culture of the population, people’s desire to live and solve problems arising, it is necessary to educate citizens on legal issues, on the other hand, to strictly monitor the implementation of laws and punish them for violation. Citizens assign a large role to educational work, considering it to be a more effective means than penalties. According to survey participants, it is necessary to strengthen legal education in educational institutions, including preschool ones, in organizations and the media.
According to every second respondent, positive changes are observed in the character, style and form of work of law enforcement agencies and human rights organizations. At the same time, respondents in most regions, regardless of material, social and age characteristics, note that they feel the effectiveness of the ongoing reforms in this area, which significantly affects the provision of social justice in society, the protection of the rights and freedoms of citizens.
In general, the results of the survey showed that citizens of the country support the program of the Strategy of Action, which has a positive impact on the activities of the judicial and legal system, contributes to the improvement of professionalism of employees in this sphere, promotes the growth of citizens' confidence in the judicial and legal sphere and is aimed at further democratization and liberalization of state power and governance, ensuring the rule of law.
The survey results show that in 20162018, Uzbek public opinion changes the attitude towards the law enforcement system. Assessing their work, citizens of the country note that it is moving to a new level in terms of the style and nature of the activity, the professionalism of employees, the fulfillment of their professional duty, and the protection of the honor and dignity of citizens.