50pc earned be­low PDL in 2019

Business Weekly (Zimbabwe) - - Front Page -

IN what might re­veal the dire sit­u­a­tion Zim­bab­wean em­ploy­ees found them­selves in last year, at least 13 per­cent of the em­ployed per­sons did not re­ceive any in­come in May from their main jobs, ac­cord­ing to data from the 2019 Labour Force Re­port.

The 2019 Labour Force Re­port (2019 LFCLS) shows that 50 per­cent of all em­ployed per­sons earned in­comes that were in the range of $1 to $200.

In 2019, $200 could buy 100 loaves of bread. As of this week, the low­est paid civil ser­vant’s salary mi­nus al­lowances would buy less than 100 loaves of bread al­though af­ter in­clud­ing the Covid-19 al­lowances, one can af­ford to buy at least 164 loaves.

While the 2019 LFCLS data ref­er­enced to May 2019 in­come, two months later in July 2019, the poverty da­tum line (TCPL) for one per­son stood at $324,00 in­di­cat­ing that the ma­jor­ity of the work­ers were poor.

The To­tal Con­sump­tion Poverty Line (TCPL) for an aver­age of five per­sons per house­hold stood at $1 617,00 in July 2019. (The May 2019 PDL was not avail­able).

The poverty da­tum line, which in­cludes the TCPL rep­re­sents the cost of a given stan­dard of liv­ing that must be at­tained if a per­son is deemed not to be poor.

Ac­cord­ing to the 2019 LFCLS, only 3 per­cent of all males and 1 per­cent of fe­males earned above $ 3 000, last year.

Mean­while, the 2019 LFCLS es­ti­mated the to­tal num­ber of em­ployed per­sons in 2019 stood at 2,9 mil­lion with at least 1,1 mil­lion of these self-em­ployed.

About 34 per­cent of all em­ployed per­sons were found in the in­for­mal sec­tor while the for­mal sec­tor ac­counted for 32 per­cent of em­ployed per­sons.

The largest pro­por­tion of all em­ployed per­sons (34,2 per­cent) was in the house­hold sec­tor.

Zim­stat in­cludes ca­sual work­ers and un­paid fam­ily work­ers work­ing for at least 15 hours a week (or 60 hours a month) as part of the em­ployed work­force.

“60 per­cent were work­ing as em­ploy­ees to other per­sons or or­gan­i­sa­tions while the least cat­e­gory was the con­tribut­ing fam­ily worker with less than 1 per­cent.”

The high­est pro­por­tion of 45 per­cent of the em­ployed per­sons was un­der the pri­vate-non fi­nan­cial in­sti­tu­tional sec­tor fol­lowed by the house­hold 15 per­cent and cen­tral Gov­ern­ment 15 per­cent sec­tors.

Thirty-six per­cent of the em­ployed pop­u­la­tion were in the agri­cul­ture, forestry and fish­ing sec­tor fol­lowed by those em­ployed in the re­tail trade sec­tor at 17 per­cent.

The ma­jor­ity of the em­ployed per­sons at 29 per­cent held elementary oc­cu­pa­tions such as man­u­fac­tur­ing labour­ers, farm labour­ers, mes­sen­gers among oth­ers fol­lowed by skilled agri­cul­tural, forestry, and fish­ery work­ers with about 20 per­cent. Ser­vice and sales work­ers were at 17,7 per­cent.

Women dom­i­nated men in only 5 out of the 23 sec­tors namely, re­tail trade, ac­com­mo­da­tion and food ser­vice ac­tiv­i­ties, hu­man health and so­cial work, ed­u­ca­tion and pri­vate do­mes­tic work. In the con­struc­tion, elec­tric­ity, gas, steam and air con­di­tion­ing sup­ply ac­tiv­i­ties and trans­porta­tion and stor­age sec­tors, 9 in 10 of the em­ployed per­sons were males.

Low em­ploy­ment lev­els

The Em­ploy­ment to Pop­u­la­tion Ra­tio (EPR), which refers to the pro­por­tion of a coun­try’s work­ing — age pop­u­la­tion that is em­ployed was at 35,8 per­cent, ac­cord­ing to the 2019 LFCLS.

A high ra­tio means that a large pro­por­tion of a coun­try’s pop­u­la­tion is em­ployed while a low ra­tio means that a large share of the pop­u­la­tion is not di­rectly in­volved in mar­ket-re­lated ac­tiv­i­ties, by virtue of ei­ther be­ing un­em­ployed or be­ing out­side the labour force.

The fe­male EPR was 29 per­cent com­pared to 44 per­cent for males while EPR for males was higher than that of fe­males in all prov­inces.

Harare had the high­est EPR (55 per­cent) fol­lowed by Bu­l­awayo (46 per­cent) while Mata­bele­land North had the low­est at 18 per­cent.

The na­tional EPR was lower for the age groups 15-19 years as well as 65 years and above. It was higher in the broad age group 30-54 years.

Not highly ed­u­cated

or skilled af­ter all

At the na­tional level, 54 per­cent of the em­ployed pop­u­la­tion had lower se­condary (Form 1-4) as their high­est level of ed­u­ca­tion at­tended while a quar­ter of the em­ployed pop­u­la­tion had pri­mary as their high­est level at­tended.

Only 5 per­cent at­tended higher na­tional diploma or Bachelor’s level. The ma­jor­ity of about 84 per­cent of em­ployed per­sons did not spe­cialise in any field. The field of ed­u­ca­tion had the largest pop­u­la­tion com­pared to other fields at about five per­cent. For males, the largest pro­por­tion of the pop­u­la­tion was spe­cialised in en­gi­neer­ing, man­u­fac­tur­ing and con­struc­tion field at (3,7 per­cent) fol­lowed by so­cial sciences, busi­ness and law (3,6 per­cent).

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