THEY ARE

Australian Geographic - - Southern Exposure -

LEVEL 0: No au­to­ma­tion.

The hu­man driver con­trols all as­pects of driv­ing all the time.

LEVEL 1: Driver as­sis­tance.

One as­pect of ve­hi­cle mo­tion, such as steer­ing or ac­cel­er­a­tion/de­cel­er­a­tion, is ex­e­cuted by an as­sis­tance sys­tem and a hu­man driver.

LEVEL 2: Par­tial au­to­ma­tion.

Steer­ing and ac­cel­er­a­tion/de­cel­er­a­tion can both be ex­e­cuted by the as­sis­tance sys­tem, but the hu­man driver must be ready to take full con­trol in an emer­gency and is ul­ti­mately re­spon­si­ble for what­ever the ve­hi­cle does.

LEVEL 3: Con­di­tional au­to­ma­tion.

All as­pects of driv­ing can be per­formed by the sys­tem. Ve­hi­cles self-man­age steer­ing and ac­cel­er­a­tion/ de­cel­er­a­tion, and also mon­i­tor the en­vi­ron­ment around them, but the hu­man driver must in­ter­vene upon re­quest.

LEVEL 4: High au­to­ma­tion.

The sys­tem can man­age all as­pects of driv­ing even if the hu­man driver doesn’t re­spond to an in­ter­ven­tion re­quest. Ve­hi­cles at this level are truly ‘driver­less’; how­ever, the op­tion to man­u­ally over­ride the as­sis­tance sys­tem re­mains.

LEVEL 5: Full au­to­ma­tion.

Ve­hi­cles at this level don’t re­quire a driver to be present at all; they don’t have steer­ing wheels or ped­als and re­quire no hu­man in­ter­ven­tion.

Newspapers in English

Newspapers from Australia

© PressReader. All rights reserved.