In 2020, Cole tested the health effects of social isolation in a group of macaque monkeys, who spent 14 days isolated in smaller cages (blue), and, later, 14 days isolated in a space with a juvenile macaque (green). Changes in the immune system, such as an increase in inflammati­on-related classical monocytes (A) and downregula­tion of the type I interferon response (B), were significan­tly reversed in monkeys when they were paired with a juvenile.

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