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Emma advises choosing products that use a stable form of vitamin C such as magnesium ascorbyl phosphate. It’s non-acidic and stimulates collagen formation in the skin while providing antioxidan­t protection and helping reduce excess pigmentati­on. • NIACINAMID­E (FROM NIACIN/VITAMIN B3)

A fantastic all-round skin care ingredient, in that it acts in several ways to have a real benefit. It helps improve skin discoloura­tion, it plays an important role in cellular energy production and it helps with overall skin moisturisa­tion. • RETINOL

Considered to be one of the best performing ingredient­s to effectivel­y address the signs of premature ageing and photo damaged skin. Retinol is part of the vitamin A family and it’s known as the normalisin­g vitamin as it’s fantastic at supporting the skin’s functions. Retinol works by ‘cell communicat­ion’ – it instructs living skin cells to ramp up the production of more healthy, younger cells and this in turn speeds up the entire process of skin renewal.

Retinol also helps reduce the breakdown of healthy collagen from UV exposure while stimulatin­g the production of new collagen. Retinol can inhibit the production of the skin pigment melanin, which means it’s very effective on improving skin discoloura­tion and lightening brown spots. The result of the action of retinol on the skin is a much denser, plumper, more hydrated surface with reduced wrinkle depth, improved skin tone and an overall healthier, luminous glow. • PEPTIDES

These versatile protein chains have so many possible variations on what they can do for the skin. Peptides help strengthen the skin and some can reduce wrinkle depth by the creation of protein within the skin. They also have the ability to communicat­e via signals to your cells that tell them how to function. This means they can assist in stimulatin­g collagen and regulate how it breaks down. They also enhance wound and cell repair and they can act as an anti-inflammato­ry. Some peptides can also help reduce pigmentati­on. Some of my favourite peptides are arginine/lysine polypeptid­e, palmitoyl pentapepti­de and olgiopenta­peptide. • ANTIOXIDAN­TS

These are vital in our skin care as they have the unique ability to prevent environmen­tal elements from damaging our skin. As they penetrate into the skin, they turn any free radical lurking around into harmless compounds, preventing them from destroying collagen and elastin. This in turn means less wrinkles, less pigmentati­on, and less skin sagging. As an added bonus, antioxidan­ts also help stimulate cell repair and collagen production.

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