Possible causes of hair loss, essential steps of CPR
This guide shows you what to do if someone has a life-threatening emergency
IF A PERSON COLLAPSES, stops breathing and goes into cardiac arrest, performing CPR (chest compressions and rescue breathing) immediately can more than double their chance of survival. After checking that you, the collapsed person and any bystanders are safe, begin by checking for a response by squeezing the person’s shoulders and asking if they are all right. If you are not alone, send someone to call an ambulance. Tilt their head to open the airway, and lift their chin. Check if the person is breathing (don’t begin CPR if they are breathing normally). If the airway is obstructed, place them in the recovery position. Then follow these CPR steps:
Position your hands. Make sure the person is lying flat on their back on a firm surface.
Kneel beside them and place the heel of your hand on the centre of their chest.
Interlock fingers. Keeping your arms straight, cover the first hand with the heel of your other hand and interlock the fingers of both hands together.
Give chest compressions. Lean forwards so that your shoulders are directly over the patient’s chest and press down one third of the chest depth. Release the pressure, but not your hands, and let the chest come back up. Try to give 100 to 120 chest compressions per minute. Not sure what that really means? Push to the beat of the Bee Gees song ‘Stayin’ Alive’ – that’s about two compressions each second.
Repeat to give 30 chest compressions and then two rescue breaths.
Give rescue breaths. Tilt their head back to open the airway again. Pinch the nostrils closed with your finger and thumb, supporting their chin with your other hand. Take a normal breath, put your mouth over their mouth, and blow until you see their chest rising.
Watch chest fall. Pause and, looking along the chest, watch to see if it falls. Give two full breaths between each cycle of compressions. Some people may be reluctant to give rescue breathing to an unconscious stranger, and be more likely to take action by doing chest-compressiononly CPR, and this alone can still be life saving. Rescue breathing, however, is recommended for infants, children and drowning victims.
Repeat chest compressions and rescue breaths. Place your hands on the chest again and repeat the cycle of 30 chest compressions, followed by two rescue breaths. Continue the cycle until help arrives or the person starts breathing.
Tilt the head back to re-open the airway. See step 5