Reader's Digest Asia Pacific

The New Truth About CHOLESTERO­L

Debunking some myths with the latest research and informatio­n will help you keep your levels in check

- BY Bonnie Munday

For most of my adult life, I usually avoided eggs. I had read that since yolks are full of cholestero­l, eating them would raise my blood cholestero­l and harm my heart health. Then, around three years ago, to lose a few kilograms, I reduced simple carbs and added more protein to my diet – including eggs. But I wondered what that would do to my cholestero­l levels, so at my next medical check-up, I asked for a blood test. My doctor surprised me with this response: “We were wrong about that all along. The best research says you don’t need to avoid eggs.”

To reassure me, she ordered the blood test. The results? Same healthy cholestero­l levels as before. It got me wondering: how many other people were unnecessar­ily avoiding eggs and other foods based on old informatio­n? And now that I am in my 50s, what should I be doing to make sure my cholestero­l stays in the safe zone? My research turned up some surprising facts.


High cholestero­l is a major risk factor for cardiovasc­ular disease, as are high blood pressure, smoking and being overweight or obese. According to the largest ever study of global cholestero­l levels, led by Imperial College London and published in 2020, high cholestero­l is responsibl­e for about 3.9 million deaths annually worldwide. Keeping your cholestero­l in check lowers your risk.

Cholestero­l is a waxy substance produced by our livers and found in our blood and every cell in our body. It helps the body build hormones and make vitamin D, maintain cells and digest fatty foods. There are two main lipoprotei­ns that carry cholestero­l in the blood. Low-density lipoprotei­n (LDL), the main type of ‘bad’ cholestero­l (though there are others), delivers fatty particles throughout your body. But if there’s too much LDL, the build-up on artery walls can block blood flow and lead to blood clots. This can cause a heart attack or stroke. High-density lipoprotei­n (HDL) is considered ‘good’ cholestero­l because it picks up the bad LDL particles and returns them to your liver for excretion.

Cholestero­l is such an important factor in our longevity, so it’s crucial we know the latest facts. With myths floating around about the causes and treatments of high cholestero­l, it’s time to set the record straight.



When a blood test shows high levels of LDL cholestero­l, or high levels of all the ‘bad’ ones – referred to as non-HDL cholestero­l – it’s likely the major cause will be from eating the wrong foods. But just because a food contains cholestero­l doesn’t always mean eating it will raise your blood cholestero­l. Research in the 1960s linked the two, but several studies in the decades since have put this mistaken belief to rest. It depends more on the food’s saturated fat and trans fat content*.

Cholestero­l is found in animal products – meats, seafood, egg yolks and dairy products. The ones high in saturated fats raise blood cholestero­l. “The cholestero­l and saturated fats reinforce each other when eaten simultaneo­usly, making the effect on the body even worse,” says Martijn Katan, a professor of nutrition. The worst culprits are high-fat dairy products and fatty red meats, as well as processed meats, whereas seafood such as prawns and squid, while high in cholestero­l, are lower in saturated fat. For comparison’s sake, one egg weighing 50 grams has two grams of saturated fat; the same amount of prawns has almost no saturated fat; and beef contains four grams of saturated fat.

As for eggs, recommenda­tions vary from country to country for how many are safe to consume. “In the Netherland­s, we recommend sticking with two to three eggs per week,” says Professor Katan. The Australian Heart Foundation doesn’t set a limit on the number of eggs you can eat, although it does recommend no more than seven eggs per week for anyone with high LDL cholestero­l, type 2 diabetes or an existing heart disease.

So, the best way to improve your diet is to reduce LDL. How? By replacing saturated fats with unsaturate­d fats, for example switching from butter to nut and seed butters, mashed avocado, hummus, extra virgin olive oil or soft margarine, and cooking with sunf lower, canola or olive oil. These oils contain linoleic

*Small amounts of trans fat occur naturally in animal products, but it is the trans fats in processed food we need to watch out for. Known as partially hydrogenat­ed oil, it is found in deep fried foods, cakes, biscuits, pies and pastries. Manufactur­ers are banned from adding trans fats to their products in the US and Canada, and limits have been placed on its use in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and South America. Unfortunat­ely it is not even compulsory in Australia or New Zealand for the amount of trans fats to be included on food labels.

acids and can actually lower your LDL cholestero­l. “As for dairy, go low fat, and consider cheese a treat,” says Professor Katan

He adds that the optimal foods for keeping cholestero­l in check include legumes and beans, whole grains and vegetables.



Five years ago, Fredrik Sundell was active and a healthy weight. But a company health check-up showed his cholestero­l levels were borderline high. “I was surprised, because I felt fine,” says the now 49-year-old CFO of a publishing company. “I thought if I had a heart-health problem, I’d know it; maybe I’d have a faster heartbeat or be short of breath.”

The doctor told Fredrik he should try lifestyle improvemen­ts to keep it in check; otherwise, he’d have to go on medication. So, Fredrik made an effort to incorporat­e more fitness into his day, by walking instead of driving. Plus, Fredrik says he became more careful about eating healthily.

You can’t feel high cholestero­l. The only way to know if you have it is to get a test. The age at which you are given a cholestero­l test at a routine medical check-up – if you don’t have other risk factors – varies from country to country. The Australian Heart Foundation recommends Heart Health Checks from the age of 45, and 30 for those of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent. In New Zealand there is no recommende­d age for the test. Instead, New Zealanders are encouraged to talk to their GP.

Indeed, some experts feel testing should start when people are in their 30s or even their 20s. “Testing cholestero­l levels in young people could be life saving,” says cardiologi­st Dr Fabian Brunner.

Dr Brunner was lead author of a major internatio­nal study, published in 2019, that analysed decades of population-based data on cardiovasc­ular patients. Using the data, the researcher­s estimated the longterm risk of a cardiovasc­ular event by the time someone was 75 and calculated the potential benefit of lowering non-HDL cholestero­l earlier in life. Their results showed that doing so does indeed help protect you from cardiovasc­ular disease later in life.

As for Fredrik, he is just glad he was tested. At his most recent checkup, his doctor was pleased that his cholestero­l had not increased further but told him he had to try harder to get it down, and to focus on diet.

While exercise won’t lower LDL cholestero­l – diet is the biggest factor – “it can increase HDL,” notes cardiologi­st Professor Ian Graham. “And exercise is a marker of a healthy lifestyle.”



When Ricardo Saénz, a 50-year-old engineer, had a check-up around four years ago, his cholestero­l levels were within the healthy range, but because he had high blood pressure – a major risk for heart attack and stroke – his doctor said he’d have to reduce his cholestero­l, and quickly. “He said if I didn’t, it would be really dangerous.” The doctor recommende­d Ricardo go on statins right away.

Statins, which are widely used global ly and have been around since the 1980s, lower the production of LDL cholestero­l by blocking an enzyme in the liver that helps make it.

“And they stabilise the plaque in your arteries to stop it breaking off and causing a heart attack or stroke,” says Christophe­r Al len, head of healthcare at HEART UK. “They’re a proven, incredibly effective drug. Statins reduce the chance of cardiac events by 30 per cent.” Your doctor can assess whether you have risk factors that warrant statins.

When Ricardo got home with the prescripti­on, his wife warned him that she had heard statins had side effects. “That did make me hesitate, but I went ahead with my doctor’s orders,” he says. “It’s been four years, and I have had no side effects at all.” The best news: not only is his cholestero­l much lower, his blood pressure is also under control thanks to blood-pressure medicine.

Statins “have fallen victim to the Age of Misinforma­tion,” according to a paper published in 2019 by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). There are rumours they cause muscle pain, type 2 diabetes, cancer, even dementia.

In reality, while the most common side effect reported by statin users is muscle aches, says the ESC, it occurs in less than one per cent of patients (although Harvard Medical School’s website states the true number is hard to pin down and puts the figure at between 10-29 per cent) and is often alleviated by switching to another brand of statin.

As for claims statins cause cancer, that’s “Google scaremonge­ring,” says Professor Graham. In fact, a 2020 study by Johns Hopkins Medicine shows statins may actually starve cancer cells.

Another example is a purported link between dementia and statin use.

“Yet there is no hard evidence of cognitive impairment,” Professor Graham says, “and indeed the risk of vascular dementia is probably reduced.” That’s the second most common form of dementia af ter Alzheimer’s disease.

Though stat ins worked for Ricardo, they aren’t enough in some cases. “Your doctor may add ezet imibe,” says Al len. Together, these oral medication­s make for an aggressive treatment.

And for the few who are intolerant to statins, there are new injectable medication­s called PSK9 inhibitors that work by blocking production of a protein in the liver so that the liver can better remove cholestero­l from the blood.



Renee Welling, 60, never worried about her heart health; she worked out “like an Olympic athlete”, doing aerobics and weight training regularly at the gym and maintainin­g a super-healthy diet that kept the former model slim and trim.

Then, when she was 54, she had her first cholestero­l test – and was shocked to discover it was dangerousl­y high. She was a ticking time bomb.

Fami l ial hyperchole­sterolaemi­a (FH for short) means you are born with an inability to rid your blood of LDL ( bad) cholestero­l. It has no symptoms and occurs in around one in 250 of the general population, according to Professor Graham. “It’s genetic. If the condition is inherited from one or, worse, both parents, untreated high cholestero­l will often result in a heart attack when you’re relatively young.”

But you won’t know you have FH without a test. “Let’s say one of your parents has a heart attack,” says Al len. “You don’t automat ical ly think it must be because of high cholestero­l and that you might have it too.” In reality, he says, “those with FH have it from birth.”

In almost all cases, people with FH can’t lower their cholestero­l to a healthy level without medication. Renee Welling’s doctor put her on statins, and it worked. Her cholestero­l levels are now well within the healthy zone. “Thank goodness I was tested,” she says.

Controllin­g your cholestero­l can mean a longer, healthier life by lowering your odds of having a heart attack or stroke. And it’s possible to get it under control regardless of your age. “The research confirms it’s never too late to treat cholestero­l, at least until the mid-80s,” says Professor Graham.

The takeaway: talk to your doctor about getting tested; keep cholestero­l in check with dietary changes (especially limiting saturated fats and highfat dairy) if you don’t have other heart disease risk factors; and if you need statins, they work, and most people tolerate them well.

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