Form Fol­lows One Func­tion: Sur­vival

If you study an­i­mal anatomy and phys­i­ol­ogy, you will see that many crea­tures have found dif­fer­ent ways to ab­sorb oxy­gen from the air/food from the sur­round­ings and en­sure that their bod­ies have the op­ti­mum tem­per­a­ture. Even the de­vel­op­ment into adults can

Science Illustrated - - ANIMALS -

The study of an­i­mals is al­ways con­ducted in a series of spe­cific stages. When sci­en­tists have iden­ti­fied the an­i­mal and its num­bers, the next step is to de­ter­mine its make-up (anatomy) and func­tions (phys­i­ol­ogy). Both sci­en­tific dis­ci­plines have a long and ex­ten­sive his­tory, which dates back to Greek and Ro­man nat­u­ral sci­en­tists or per­haps even fur­ther.

An an­i­mal reg­is­ters and co­or­di­nates in­for­ma­tion from the out­side world and con­trols its body via its sen­sory or­gans, ner­vous sys­tem, and hor­mone sys­tem. In some crea­tures such as wa­ter fleas, the sys­tem is very sim­ple. They have one sin­gle primitive eye that only knows the dif­fer­ence be­tween light and dark­ness. Other an­i­mals have more com­plex sen­sory or­gans and ner­vous sys­tems, that can reg­is­ter a very high num­ber of dif­fer­ent data about the out­side world.

The ab­sorp­tion of nour­ish­ment and elim­i­na­tion of waste prod­ucts are car­ried out by the di­ges­tive sys­tem. In prin­ci­ple, it is very sim­ple, but as an­i­mals can eat such dif­fer­ent things as wood, feathers, and blood, there is ma­jor in­di­vid­ual vari­a­tion.

Small an­i­mals can ab­sorb oxy­gen thor­ough their sur­faces, whereas large an­i­mals must have a res­pi­ra­tion sys­tem with lungs, gills, or the like to ab­sorb oxy­gen from air or wa­ter.

All an­i­mals are equipped with a type of re­pro­duc­tive sys­tem, whether they mate, carry out partheno­gen­e­sis, or just di­vide in two or bud off from the par­ent.

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