The Chronicle



1515 King Francis of France defeats the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthaus Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy.

1549 Pope Paul III closes the first session of the Council of Bologna.

1564 On the verge of attacking Pedro Menendez’s Spanish settlement at San Agostin, Florida, Jean Ribault’s French fleet is scattered by a devastatin­g storm.

1759 British troops defeat the French on the plains of Abraham, in Quebec.

1774 Anne Robert Turgot, the new controller of finances, urges the king of France to restore the free circulatio­n of grain in the kingdom.

1782 The British fortress at Gibraltar comes under attack by French and Spanish forces.

1789 Guardsmen in Orleans, France, open fire on rioters trying to loot bakeries, killing 90.

1905 US warships head to Nicaragua on behalf of American William Albers, who was accused of evading tobacco taxes.

1918 US and French forces take St Mihiel, France in America’s first action as a standing army.

1945 Iran demands the withdrawal of Allied forces.

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