dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first person to sight Tasmania in 1642. He christened the island after his patron, Anthoonji van diemenslandt who was the governor of the dutch East Indies. When the British first settled east of the derwent estuary in 1803, they shortened the name to van dieman’s land. A second settlement was established a year later to the west of the derwent River where there was an abundant supply of fresh water.
This second settlement was dubbed Hobart Town, after the British Colonial Secretary lord Hobart. Elegantly situated on the hills above the derwent River, the capital of Tasmania retains much of its original colonial heritage and still enjoys a down to earth country atmosphere despite its city status.
Hobart is famous for its historic World Heritage sites including the convict sites of Port Arthur and the Cascades Female Factory, a purpose built, self-contained institution intended to reform female convicts. The city is surrounded by a sweeping natural landscape which affords its reputation as one of Australia’s most beautiful cities.
Indigenous people had lived on the island for at least 35,000 years before white settlement. Aboriginal dreamtime stories tell of the creation of Trowenna, the present day Tasmania. In the beginning, when all of creation was taking shape, Trowenna was a small sandbank in the great southern seas. Trowenna endured through darkness and light and kept on through the Ice Age. One day, Puywin (the sun) and his wife venna (the moon) rose from the sea and traversed the sky, dropping seeds for the great gumtree, tara monandro and plants onto Trowenna. Rain fell the next day to help tara monandro grow, and the seeds began to sprout. Shellfish of every shape and size appeared in the surrounding waters. The leaves of the trees and plants mixed with the sand to become soil. The shellfish grew and became ever more plentiful, and as they died, they formed the rocks and stones of the mountains. Trowenna gradually grew and emerged from the southern seas, eventually breaking away from the mainland to become the unique island that we know today.
十七世紀中葉，荷蘭探險家亞伯‧塔斯曼（Abel Tasman）無意間從 Blackmans Bay 登陸，他是第一 個踏上這塊近7萬平方公里島嶼的歐洲人，並為之取名「Anthony van Diemen's Land」，以紀念當時派遣塔斯曼航海探險的荷蘭駐東印度群島總督。
如同澳洲各地的起源史，這塊島嶼在被英國殖民者佔領後，馬上成為流放和關押歐洲罪犯的場所。據記載，澳洲的流放犯中，至少有百分之四十被送到了塔島上進行開拓，犯人總數高達幾萬之多，島上也因此建立起大量的監獄。位於塔斯曼尼亞首都霍巴特的著名港口Port Auther 至今保留著當時關押罪犯的地方。
澳洲的歷史把這場衝突稱之為「黑色戰爭」，但後人卻稱它為「種族滅絕」行動。在雙方力量懸殊的情況下，殖民者通過驅趕和滅殺，在不到 30年的時間內，將當地土著人的人口從5千以上降到了3 百之下。
At 1,270 metres high, Mount Wellington towers over the beautiful city of Hobart. Climbers are rewarded with a stunning view of the d’entrecateaux Channel and derwent River from its peak. The mountain is composed of dolerite rock that was formed over 175 million years ago, when molten magma reached the Earth’s surface and spread laterally, slowly cooling into the present day rock. Captain Bligh first sighted the mountain in 1785 and named it Table Hill.
The Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens
The area that was officially recognised as Tasmania’s Royal Botanical Gardens in 1818 began as a piece of rough bushland that was granted to an ex-convict for cultivation. William davidson, the Garden’s first superintendent, collected over 150 native specimens from Mount Wellington and combined these with plants he imported from Britain to cultivate the area into an elegant courtyard. The gardens flourished and remain a popular site for rest and recreation to this day.
Port Arthur was established in 1830 and was modelled as "a machine for grinding rogues into honest men". The station implemented strict discipline, punishment, religious instruction and education. Rehabilitated convicts left Port Arthur and returned to society as skilled workmen. Port Arthur became an institution for aging and ill convicts when convict transportation ceased in 1853.
Salamanca Place, Battery Point, Risdon Cove, Anglesea Barracks, the Franklin River and the Cadbury Factory are just a few of the mustsee places on this island chock full of treasure!
走進霍巴特，現代建築與19 世紀的遺風相融合，殖民時期的痕跡比比皆是，充滿歷史故事的亞瑟港（Port Arthur）見證了塔州的新舊交替。如今，圍繞著當年的監獄建築是一片片的葡萄園，寧靜街面上洋溢著英倫風味。比起澳洲其他城市， 這裡更顯出歐洲特色。