Canada's History : 2020-08-01

TRADING POST : 32 : 32


footage to be used in the Canadian Army Newsreels and at home within National Film Board production­s. Canadian journalist­s reported stories for those at home, while service historians created records for future generation­s. Photograph­ers close to the front snapped shots of all three services, and official war artists like Lawren P. Harris, Charles Comfort, and Molly Lamb Bobak left a moving legacy on canvas. Variety shows like and the as well as many bands and performers, reinforced Canadian culture, albeit of a lowbrow form. Perhaps even lower — but highly appreciate­d by the soldiers — were cartoonist­s like Merle Tingley, Les Callan, and William “Bing” Coughlin, who depicted Canadians in the field. Much loved stand-up comics Johnny Wayne and Frank Shuster made jokes that poked fun at discipline, food, and almost anything else that rankled the rank and file. These artists helped to foster a distinct Canadian identity and created many of the cultural products that would allow future generation­s to better imagine the national war effort. The need for a distinctiv­e Canadian citizenshi­p also emerged from the war. One of King’s junior cabinet ministers, Paul Martin (father of future Prime Minister Paul Martin), had come to that conclusion after seeing the graves of men from his riding in Windsor, Ontario, who had served in the Essex Scottish Regiment and had been among those who were cut down at Dieppe, France. These Canadians who fell in defence of democratic values, he believed, should be recognized as Canadians and not as British subjects. Martin pushed through the in 1947, thereby creating Canadian citizenshi­p. There were other changes, including the opening of Canada’s borders to new immigrants, most of whom had been affected by the war. They included tens of thousands of Dutch who felt strong ties to their liberators, Jewish survivors of the Holocaust, and some five thousand Polish soldiers who had fought for the Allies and whose homeland had been abandoned to the communists. Within a few years there were even German immigrants. One was Gunter Lutzmann, a U-boat wireless operator who had been captured and sent to a prisoner of war camp in Petawawa, Ontario, during the war. Like the other thirtyfour thousand German prisoners in Canada, he returned to a shattered homeland after the war. When he immigrated to Canada in 1952, his motivation, as he said decades later, was that it was “the best place to raise a family.” While it must have been strange for many Canadians to see Germans moving to Canada, the broken Germany, divided into east and west, seemed fated to wallow in the war’s bitter defeat. But, in less than a decade, West Germany was rearmed and a part of the NATO alliance in the Cold War. This would not be the last time that Canada was forced to make hard choices in standing by new allies who had once been enemies. And, while Canada sought to be an honest broker on the world stage, it was entwined with Western allies, both in formal military alliances and in ideologica­l beliefs. All the while, Canadians learned to live in the nuclear age, with the 1945 mushroom clouds above the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki continuing to loom in the global consciousn­ess. Meet the Navy Canadian Army Show, A s the years passed, the new postwar social-security net became more encompassi­ng, and more expensive, with crippling debt arriving in the early 1990s. Some dark and buried legacies of the war also worked their way to the surface of historical awareness. A suppressio­n of civil liberties under the during the war years took place again during the October Crisis in Citizenshi­p Act War Measures Act 32 AUGUST–SEPTEMBER 2020 CANADASHIS­TORY.CA