Species of the Bo­real

Canadian Wildlife - - WILD THINGS -

The bo­real canopy com­prises about 20 tree species, mostly conif­er­ous, no­tably spruce, fir, pine and tama­rack. De­cid­u­ous trees in­clude trem­bling as­pen, bal­sam, poplar and birch.

The bo­real for­est shel­ters more than 85 species of mam­mals, big ones like wood bi­son, elk, moose, woodland cari­bou, griz­zly and black bears, and wolves, as well as smaller species, in­clud­ing beavers, snow­shoe hares, Canada lynx, red squir­rels, lem­mings and voles.

At least three bil­lion land, wa­ter and shore birds breed in the bo­real for­est each year, rep­re­sent­ing more than 300 species — from small (such as war­blers, vireos, thrushes, kinglets, gros­beaks, spar­rows and fly­catch­ers) to large (ducks, loons, grebes, rails, gulls, king­fish­ers and cranes). They de­pend on bo­real wa­ters for nest­ing and for food. Other bird species, such as wood­peck­ers, finches, nuthatches, chick­adees, owls, grouse and ravens, are able to live in the bo­real for­est year-round.

Roughly 32,000 in­sect species in­habit Canada’s bo­real for­est, al­though about one-third of these species have yet to be de­scribed. In­sects are crit­i­cal com­po­nents of bo­real food webs and play im­por­tant eco­log­i­cal roles as pol­li­na­tors,

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